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FALL 2006

Effects of Peppermint on Smoking Cravings, Urges, and Withdrawal Symptoms
Jared Bloom, Daniel Felbaum, Bryan Raudenbush

A variety of methods have been proven to help alleviate the symptoms of smoking cravings and withdrawals.  Unfortunately, these attempts have been directed towards a more pharmaceutical approach.  This study will attempt to provide a possibility in linking smoking cessation with a non-chemical endeavor.  In a within-subjects design, Ps completed three conditions: peppermint inhaler (PI), control smoking day (CS), and abstain from smoking (AS).   The peppermint inhaler is used from the Peak Performance Company.  Through a randomized order, the Ps were subjected to a day of using the PI instead of a cigarette.  On the CS condition, Ps were asked to smoke regularly.  On the CAs condition, the Ps were asked to abstain from smoking completely.  While on each of these conditions, Ps were asked to answer a battery of surveys during the morning, afternoon, and night.  The surveys included were the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Cigarette Craving Survey (CCS), Smoking Urges Survey, (SUS), Cigarette Withdrawals Scale (CWS), Peppermint Inhaler Tally (PIT), and Cigarette Tally (CT).  The results were able to show that there was no significant difference for smoking urges, smoking cravings, and smoking withdrawal symptoms between the regular smoking condition and the peppermint inhaler condition (CS < PI < AS).  In addition, there were significant differences between the regular smoking day and abstain condition through each of the three previously mentioned measurements.  This study provides evidence that inhaling peppermint can achieve similar, but not equal, results in curbing smoking cravings, smoking urges, and smoking withdrawal symptoms when compared to actually smoking.

Effects of Chocolate or Coffee Scent on Clerical Tasks
Kristen Koval, Justin Schmitt, Daniel Felbaum, Bryan Raudenbush

There has been a trend to improve and enhance cognitive abilities, pain tolerance and intensity management, and typing skills away from a pharmaceutical-based approach.  Studies have shown that scents can achieve in improving performance.  Our study was designed to test the effects of a chocolate scent or coffee scent in enhancing cognitive ability, pain tolerance and intensity ratings, typing skills, and mood.  Ps were subjected to three conditions: Chocolate (CH), Coffee (CF), and a Control (CN) scents.  After a 10-minute exposure to a randomly assigned scent, Ps completed software that measures cognitive performance (IMPACT), a typing skills test (TST), and the Cold Pressor Test (CPT).  At the end of all three tests, the Ps filled out surveys regarding mood (POMS) and rated several measures of the tasks given to them (NASA-TLX).  The study provides evidence that chocolate scent is capable of enhancing visual motor speed and impulse control.  In addition, a coffee scent was found to improve accuracy, net speed, and increase error hits.

Perception of scientists and artists
Robert Loven, Matthew Galvin, Kayla Lewellen, Megan Keenan

To examine gender roles in different occupations, 40 undergraduate students were asked to rate two occupations, artists and scientists, on their feminine and masculine traits using the BEM sex role inventory. This study was analyzed using a paired samples t-test. The students rated scientists as being nearly masculine and artists as androgynous. Although both of the occupations should have no perceived gender role, scientists were viewed as more masculine than artists. 

The Effects of Human Food Neophobia/Neophilia on Physiology
J. Alex Reed, Kara Blacker, and Bryan Raudenbush

Previous research has indicated that the level of human food neophobia can be influenced by many factors including: food familiarity, odor exposure, parental influence, and both fear and hunger levels. Very little research has examined the impact of food neophobia on physiology. The present study sought to find out if food neophobics would produce greater changes in pulse, skin response, and respiration when shown images of food than when compared to being shown non food images. The participants were divided into three groups: neophobics, neophilics, and average individuals. The results showed no significant difference in physiology between neophobics and the other 2 groups when shown the images. The results also showed no significant difference in physiology among the participants when they viewed the food presentation as opposed to the non-food presentation. The results of the experiment imply that researchers need to explore further more refined methods of studying food neophobia and physiology.

Perceptions of cognitive, developmental, clinical and physiological psychologists
Chasidi Johnson, Kevin Ricco, Nikki Hoover, Caitlyn Swauger, Michelle Logan

Perceptions of the gender role characteristics of psychologists in different areas of psychology, based on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), were examined in a one way ANOVA for repeated measures. Forty participants (11 males and 29 females) were asked to complete a Bem Sex Role Inventory for a typical Cognitive, Developmental, Clinical, and Physiological Psychologist. Results showed that with an androgynous score, Developmental Psychologists were the least masculine of the four disciplines. Physiological Psychologists were perceived as the most masculine, with significant differences between Cognitive and Developmental, but not Clinical Psychologists. The results may influence future college psychology students in their decisions about pursuing different disciplines in this field. Women for example, may be swayed to become a Developmental Psychologist because this area was perceived as the most feminine of the four. 

Gender role of professors and the impact on student evaluations
David Bowden, Kate Garlick, Jerry Nolan, Tyler Petri

Undergraduate students at a small, private university participated in a survey asking them to read six descriptions of hypothetical male and female college professors.  The male and female professors had either feminine, masculine, or androgynous characteristics.  The characteristics were drawn from the Bem Sex Role Inventory scale.  Twenty descriptors were used for each of the six scenarios.  Survey orders were randomized using a Latin Square.  Participants read the descriptions and rated the professors based on 12 statements related to the teaching effectiveness of the professor.  Ratings were based on a 5-point scale.  Results were calculated using a one-way ANOVA repeated measures test.  Professors with androgynous characteristics were the most highly rated.  Female sex typed teachers were rated as likely to give the best grade and male sex typed teachers to be the most competent.

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