Wheeling Jesuit University
Student Research and Scholarship Symposium
2002 Abstracts

Explanation of the coding system:  The following abstracts are presented in alphabetical order by first author.  For the oral presentations, the information in the brackets includes the time of the presentation (e.g. 2:28), the session number (e.g. 2C), and the location of the session (e.g. D108).  For poster sessions, the bracketed information includes the time of the session (e.g. 1:00) and the poster board number where the poster is to be found (e.g. P4). 

Almonte, Stephanie:  Cardiovascular responses to changes in stride frequency[(1:00)(P12)]  There is extensive information regarding cardiovascular responses to changes in walking speed.  However, there is minimal research on cardiovascular responses to changes in stride frequency. In our study, we will focus on changes in heart  rate and blood pressure with regards to changes in cadence while maintaining a constant speed.  Co-Authors:  Julie Engdahl and Lori Rennick.

Alt, Amy:  Olympic Banquet: Event Planning for an Olympic Celebration [(11:26)(2C)(D332)] I am preparing a presentation that explains the steps that go into planning an Olympic Banquet. This banquet is a time for athletes, coaches, and family members to gather at the conclusion of the Olympic competition events.  There are steps that include both the skills of the Public Relations department and event planning. I will be preparing press releases, flyers, a program, a speech, and the details that go into planning a banquet.

Baker, Jane: A Case Study of an At Risk Elementary Student [(9:45)(1A)(ASC313)] The research consists of a case study of an at risk elementary student that was referred by the school administration.  The student's physical, emotional, psychological, academic, behavioral, and social development was studied, interviews were conducted with teachers, school personnel and family members, the student was observed in the regular school setting, and cumulative records of test scores, grades, and performance were reviewed.  A Modified Education Plan was developed for this student based on the information developed. The MEP includes specific intervention strategies to maximize the student's potential in the regular school setting.  Implementation will be made by the school system with parental involvement and support.  Implications for practice and further research were developed.

Beasley, Benjamin:  Science Fiction Dsytopia [(3:43)(4C)(D129)] Science fiction works such as Yvgeny Zamyatin’s We, George Orwell’s 1984, and Larry and Dennis Wachowski’s The Matrix predict problems that their advancing societies are creating for future generations.  The authors insist that the technological advancements in every generation result in a loss of civil liberties in the future.  The first warning that all three author’s present concerning the loss of liberties is through the abuse of surveillance.  Today’s society in the United States has many characteristics similar to those created in We, 1984, and The Matrix.  One can observe this loss of freedom through surveillance that records.  Second, the authors deceive the characters in their society into believing that they are living in a world of free will.  The characters in all works believe that everything is in their control.  Perhaps, people today in the United States believe that they are in control of things around them.  Readers of We and 1984, and viewers of The Matrix need to understand the warnings the authors are sending.  People in power in today’s world can take advantage of the capabilities of new technology that could lead to the worlds that these authors portray.  Co-Authors:  Yevgeny Zamyatin, George Orwell, Andy Wachowski, and Larry Wachowski. 

Buckley, Arnold: Glut 1 Glucose Transporter Expression in Rats and Frogs [(2:28)(3D)(ASC212)] The purpose of this experiment is to learn more general knowledge about the glucose transporter 1 membrane protein in frogs.  The second main objective is to determine if there is a difference in expression of Glut-1 (glucose transporter 1) protein in old versus young rats.  The Glut-1 protein is believed to be responsible for the basal level of glucose transport.  It is hypothesized that age will have an effect on the expression of the Glut-1 protein because metabolism of glucose in old versus young rats changes.

Butler, George "Brady":  Using Video to Educate Students on Successful Crime Coverage Local News [(10:24)(1C)(D332)] I will be showing a video that I directed and produced.  This will educate Communications students, who may or may not have an interest in broadcast news, about how better to cover issues of crime on local television news stations.   Guidelines for successful crime coverage will be addressed. These were obtained from a news station in Texas.

Castillo, Andre: Determination of the Amino Acid Sequence of Ficin [(1:00)(P8)] Ficin is a protease, which is obtained from the latex of fig trees and is used as an anthelmintic and protein digestive.  Ficin holds great potential for the medical industry, but it has yet to see its full potential unmasked. This is primarily due to the fact that ficin has not received a great deal of research as compared to other studies. One of the primary reasons being that ficin is located in a plant, which tends not to draw much interest by scientists. However, this protease promises to be quite vital to the medical industry once it has been effectively studied.  Several studies have been conducted on ficin. One of the more outstanding findings is the determination of the active site sequence of multiple forms of ficin. The sequence was determined by B. Friedson and I.E. Liener in 1972. Although they were not able to determine the complete amino acid sequence, they, along with other researchers, did pave the way for future attempts. Other researchers discovered some of the better-known uses of ficin such as being a protease.  Although these discoveries have been made, much remains unknown about ficin.  Clearly, ficin has untapped knowledge that can contribute to the medical industry. Therefore, my research will be to determine the amino acid sequence of ficin. By successfully completing the sequence, researchers would acquire a keen understanding of ficin and its medical potential. 

Casto, Erin: As the Many Change and Pass [(2:41)(3C)(D129)] Although Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote his famous elegy Adonais upon the untimely death of friend and fellow poet John Keats, a close examination of the elegy and the politically charged climate of literary criticism in Britain in the 1820s reveals to the reader motives other than simply mourning a lost friend.  In addition to lamenting the death of Keats, Shelley cleverly uses the elegy as a way to chastise literary critics and demonstrate the staying power of art over critical opinion.

Clay, Leah Ann:  The Gender Gap Phenomenon and Its Prevalence in American Politics [(11:39)(2D)(ASC212)] The purpose of this study was to examine the gender gap phenomenon and explain why educated women vote more liberally, while educated men vote more conservatively.  Specifically, this study examined the acknowledgement of different issues, emotional makeup, and professional achievement to account for this liberal voting trend among women.  The sample size for this study was 423, which was ten percent of the sample population of 4,223 male and female members of the regional American Bar Association (ABA), The Physician’s Directory online – General Practioners, and the CPA Directory online.  For this study, a self-administered survey was mailed to the participant along with a cover letter explaining the purpose of the study and a postage paid return envelope.  This survey was designed to recognize different issues of importance, in addition to discovering the effects of emotional make-up and professional achievement upon voting behavior.  The procedure consisted of obtaining these three lists of associations and through a stratified systematic sample, selecting every 10th member for participation.  Data was analyzed in aggregate form using SPSS and results were expected to yield some explanation as to why the gender gap phenomenon is still occurring.  Specifically, though, the results provided no statistical support that men and women acknowledge different issues and that they have different emotional appeals to issues within their makeup.  However, there was a moderate association between gender and professional status.  This hypothesis was supported with a lambda value of .276 (p=.000).  This finding, therefore, provides support for the hypothesis that varying levels of professional equality exists among the sexes, with women feeling less equal to men and reporting that the reason for this is because of discrimination within their professional fields. 

Cleavenger, Sabrina D.: Transport Properties of Semiconductor Nanocrystals [(11:39)(2B)(ASC213)] This experiment focuses on the preparation and characterization of samples for use in conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Using an AFM, voltage can be applied through a conductive tip onto CdSe nanocrystals that have been deposited on a conductive sample. In preparing the sample, factors such as conductivity, smoothness, and nanocrystal coverage are important to consider and optimize. With a successful setup, IV curves relating the conductivity of different areas on the surface can be obtained, compared, and evaluated. Using this method, it was found that a bias voltage of around 0.5v yields a current of 10nA on the gold palladium (AuPd) surface whereas the same voltage only yields 4nA in other areas, possibly due to the semiconductor properties of CdSe. Also, tip bias, topography image quality, and force of contact must be finely tuned to attain accurate, repeatable data.

Conforti, Angela: Comprehensive Literacy Program and its Effect on Students’ Reading Attitude [(3:30)(4A)(ASC313)] Students who attend McNinch Summer School may have a negative attitude towards reading as well as poor reading skills.  After the completion of the Comprehensive Literacy Program, students will develop a more positive reading attitude as well as improve upon their reading. The focus will be on what weaknesses and strengths the students may have and how to improve upon the weaknesses.

Cook, Andrea: "We Have Come So Far It is Over."  Sylvia Plath’s Poetic Reconciliation [(2:15)(3C)(D129)] My presentation is a feminist critique of four of Plath's later poems. Beginning with the poem, "Three Women: A Poem for Three Voices" I trace three distinct voices as they work in the later poems, "Child," "Childless Woman," and "Edge."  These women are forced to make a choice in the first poem and consequently have to deal with immense issues in the last three.  All of these choices swing on the hinge of female literary creativity as it is viewed within the male idea of female reproductive creativity.

Corley, Nathan:  Enhancing Personal Characteristic Ratings Through the Administration of Ambient Odors [(1:00)(P7)] Previous research indicates that physically attractive individuals are more likely to be perceived as possessing positive characteristics, such as intelligence, sociability, and good mental health, that are unattractive individuals (Feldman, 1998).  Therefore, attractiveness plays a key role in social interactions.  Clark and Waddell (1983) found that when in a positive mood, people are more likely to be attracted to others, and Dutton and Aron (1974) found that the more physiologically aroused people are the more attractive they rate others.  This information is very useful when considered in conjunction with findings indicating certain odors increase mood (Ludvigson & Rottman, 1989; Raudenbush, Meyer, & Eppich, 2001) and physiological arousal (Hirsch, 1998).  Even though a few studies have investigated the relationship between odors and mood, the influence of odors on ratings of personal characteristic (e.g. perceived attractiveness, intelligence, etc.) has yet to be addressed.  The following study investigated whether or not certain odors (cinnamon, lavender, and peppermint) would influence participant’s ratings of attractiveness, intelligence, healthiness, successfulness, and trustworthiness.  These odors were chosen based on previous findings suggesting that peppermint and lavender increase mood (Ludvigson & Rottman, 1989; Raudenbush et al., 2001), and lavender and cinnamon result in physiological arousal (Hirsch, 1998).  One hundred and ten volunteers were asked to rate photographic head shots of six individuals on the five characteristics mentioned above.  The randomly assigned odors were dispersed into the testing room by a modified ambient odor delivery system.  Odorant conditions of cinnamon and lavender increased males’ ratings females’ attractiveness, intelligence, healthiness, and truthfulness.  Males’ rating of other males and females’ ratings of both females and males were not significantly affected by the odorant conditions.  The implications are salient in regards to odors positively effecting how people are perceived in everyday social interactions. 

Corley, Nathan:  Nutritional intake differences in food neophobics and neophilics [(1:00)(P1)] Past research addressing differences between food neophobic (those individuals reluctant to try new foods) and food neophilic (those individuals particularly willing to try new foods) indicates that neophobic individuals have significantly lower body weights.  The present study explored the dietary basis of this weight differences.  One hundred people were asked to complete a food diary, listing the type and amount of all items consumed over a randomly assigned 3 day period.  Basic components, vitamins, and minerals were calculated for each participant.  Groups were then formed by a data tri-split based upon scored on the Good Neophobia Scale (FNS), thus forming groups of neophobics and neophilics, and an average group.  Neophobics tended to consume fewer total calories, and showed decreased fat and cholesterol intake than either neophilics or the average group.  This decrease in fat consumption among neophobics may account for their decreased weight.  However, few to no other differences were found among the groups on 45 other measure of nutritional adequacy.  These results support the notion that there are relatively no detrimental nutritional effects related to food neophobia. Co-Author:  Ashley Kozlowski. 

Criniti, Amy: Wrestling with Life in Angels in America and Perestroika [(3:30)(4C)(D129)] My presentation deals with playwright Tony Kushner's two-part drama, Angels in America: Millennium Approaches and Perestroika.  I discuss how his works explore the genre of apocalypse and fulfill many of its criteria. In addition, I also focus on his deliberate elimination of the most important aspect of apocalypse from his works, God, thus aiming to identify the function of religion within his plays.

Danicic, David: It’s Time to Found a College Radio Station at Wheeling Jesuit University [(10:11)(1C)(D332)]  College radio remains the strongest platform for the education and training of students who wish to enter the medium as professionals. It also can be credited for establishing a stronger unity between students and faculty and staff on campus, and can serve as a tool for mobilizing all three parties.  At this time, Wheeling Jesuit University lacks a radio station and is currently at a stage where establishing one would be timely, significantly beneficial, and cost-effective.

Durbin, Latrisha: Undergraduate Degrees in Criminal Justice: Not Just for Police Officers [(10:11)(1D)(ASC212)] The popularity of studying undergraduate criminal justice and criminology continues to grow at a phenomenal rate.  However, previous research about criminal justice undergraduate students and the effects of the college experience, individual demographic characteristics, and criminal justice curriculum on their career choice is virtually non-existent.  Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate further the relationship between these four variables and to determine what steps, if any, can be taken to develop meaningful discussions about careers in criminal justice.

Elliott, Derek: New Methods of Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles [(11:00)(2B)(ASC213)] The purpose of this experiment is to devise a new way of performing drug delivery to patients.  It involves attaching drugs to tiny nanoparticles and directing them to specific areas in the body.  An example would be chemotherapy.  At present, the only method of doing this is by poisoning the entire body in order to attempt to kill the cancer cells.  If this method works, then it will become possible to attach the poison to tiny nanoparticles and send them straight to the cancerous area by using something like an electro-magnet.  If this experiment proves successful, it would be an extraordinary breakthrough in the field of medicine and variations in administering antibiotics

Farrell, Nicole: The status of mental health facilities in U.S. correctional  institutions [(11:26)(2D)(ASC212)] In a national survey, a stratified random sample of 300 United States correctional institutions were contacted to determine what programs are available for mentally disordered offenders.  The hypothesis included: (1) In states with laws addressing the treatment of the mentally disordered in corrections, more programs will exist for the rehabilitation of the mentally disordered; states with no laws addressing the treatment of the mentally disordered in corrections, fewer programs will exist for the rehabilitation of the mentally disordered. (2) women’s correctional facilities will have more programs for the mentally disordered; men’s correctional facilities will have fewer programs for the mentally disordered. (3) The higher the security level of the correctional facility, the more program there will exist for the rehabilitation of the mentally disordered; the lower the security level of the correctional facility, the less programs there will exist for the rehabilitation of the mentally disordered.  A self-administered mail survey was mailed to the selected correctional institutions.  Of the 69 facilities that responded, 71 percent were male facilities, 14.5 percent were female facilities, and 14.5 percent were coed facilities.  In addition, 42 percent of the responding facilities were maximum security.  Furthermore, 53.3% of the correctional facilities have laws/decrees mandating offenders' rights to mental health treatment.  Finally, 19% of the entire offender population was mentally disordered.  Data was analyzed in aggregate form using SPSS.  Results indicated that the relationship between the gender of the facility and the number of programs for the mentally disordered to be significant.  In addition, states with laws addressing the treatment of the mentally disordered had significantly more programs for the treatment of the mentally disordered.  The research findings also indicated there was no significant difference in the relationship between security levels and the number of programs for the mentally disordered.

Fitzsimmons, Paula J.: Reading Attitudes in Elementary School Students [(2:54)(3A)(ASC313)] The study was designed to investigate the benefit from doing fun activities and associating these activities with reading.  The participants of this study were a total of 8 elementary students who were attending a summer enrichment program.  The intervention tends to support the premise that combining fun activities with reading will result in a more positive attitude towards reading.  The results of the intervention are explained and implications for practice and further research are outlined.

Fleming, John:  Analysis of Soil Below Past and Present Railroad Lines [(3:30)(4D)(ASC212)] In 2000, there were over 170,000 miles of railroad lines operating in North America.  Thousands of additional miles of abandoned railroad lines also exist in North America.  Large portions of the lines include railroad ties treated with creosote, a wood preserver.  It is hypothesized that soil taken from railroad lines, both active and abandoned, would contain higher quantities of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) than soil taken from areas away from the railroad line. Samples were collected in Wheeling, West Virginia and Donegal Township, Pennsylvania from the abandoned Baltimore and Ohio Railroad line that runs from Wheeling to Washington, Pennsylvania, and one sample was taken from an active industrial siding along the Norfolk Southern Railroad at Leetsdale, Pennsylvania.  Samples were also collected at locations in Wheeling, Donegal Township, and Leetsdale away from the railroad lines. The samples were then analyzed for PAH using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

Forshey, Sarah E.: The Development of a Pulsed Plasma Flow Meter for  Respiratory Applications [(11:13)(2B)(ASC213)] During the past several years, there has been a dramatic up swing in the number of people receiving respiratory therapy.  The reasons for this increase range from asthma to various other lung diseases caused by smoking or industrial exposure.  In all these cases, it would be beneficial to be able to measure the respiration air flowrate in real time.  Several problems associated with respiration have kept existing flow meters from adequately fulfilling this application.  These problems are: two way flow (in and out), high-pressure drop, and blockage due to mucus secretions.  In order to overcome these deficiencies, a new flow meter is being developed based upon the disruption of normal current in a thermocouple when it is placed in a non-thermal plasma.  Thus, the flow meter consists of a device in which a non-thermal plasma is generated in a pulsed fashion, and the timed response to the thermocouple is correlated to the flowrate.  Test data is shown for a prototype flow meter.

Found, Kelly: Media Literacy: A Training Manual for Youth [(11:39)(2C)(D332)] To examine a relationship of media's negative affects on teenagers and remedy teens misconceptions of what is reality. A series of media literacy exercises and activities have been developed to engage teen’s minds to think critically and analyze deceptive advertisements, and in turn provide teens with skills to become better communicators. Thus, each activity is designed to challenge existing perceptions of the media while creating new ways for teens to recognize the difference of what is real and what is false in the world of advertising.

Francis, Dawn:  Improving Attendance: The Role of PR in the Wheeling Nailers Organization [(9:58)(1C)(D332)]  Contrary to the growth of the East Coast Hockey League, the Wheeling Nailers have had a considerable decrease in attendance in the seasons following 1994-1995.  This could be caused by the approach to public relations and advertising, and should be salvaged by a new public relations campaign, specifically geared toward the team's tenth season celebration.

Frank, Jamie: Children and Nutrition  [(11:39)(2A)(ASC313)] During Energy Express, a six-week summer program for children, I studied children and nutrition.  I specifically concentrated on the food guide pyramid and well-balanced meals.  I conducted both a pre- and post- test with the children and supplemented their prior knowledge with numerous nutritional activities, games, and lessons.

Friend, Rachel: Effect of oxygenates added to gasoline on reducing carbon monoxide emission [(1:00)(P9)] The objective of this research was to determine the effect that ethyl alcohol and MTBE have on reducing carbon monoxide emissions from a small lawnmower. Gasoline blends were prepared to contain from 5 to 10 volume percent of the oxgenate. The blended gasoline and a reference gasoline (no oxygenate added) were run in a lawn mower with an 8hp, four-cycled engine. The exhaust gases were collected in gas sampling bags over a 15-minute period and were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of CO was determined by comparing the peak area from the exhaust sample to the peak area from a standard 10% CO blend. The  concentration of CO in the exhaust of the lawn mower operating on regular gasoline containing no oxygenates was 5%. Upon addition of 10% ethyl alcohol or 10% MTBE to the gasoline, the CO concentration dropped to 1.3%; a 75% reduction. Based on an exhaust rate of 107 liters/min, the average CO emissions from the lawn mower operation on regular gasoline was 354grams/hr which was reduced to 90grams/hr when 10% ethyl alcohol or 10% MTBE was added to the gasoline. As a comparison, the average CO emissions from an automobile at idle is approximately 560 grams of CO per hour.

Garber, Erica: Starting a New Business: An identity package for Tri-Salvage [(11:13)(2C)(D332)] I will be presenting how I assisted the owner of Tri-Salvage in creating and advertising the new identity of the business to the appropriate audience.  I will include a self-created logo, information package letter, a newspaper ad, an ad for the yellow pages, a stationary package (including a business card and envelope), a prospective customer list and a preferred customer list.

Giese, Cara: A Case Study of an At Risk Elementary Student [(2:28)(3A)(ASC313)] This research consists of a case study of an At Risk Elementary student referred by the school administration.  The student's physical, emotional, psychological, academic, behavioral, and social development was studied, interviews were conducted with teachers, school personnel and family members, the student was observed in the regular school setting, and cumulative records of test scores, grades, and performance were reviewed.  A Modified Education Plan was developed for this student based on the information developed. The MEP includes specific intervention strategies to maximize the student's potential and learning in the regular school setting.  Implementation will be made by the school system with parental involvement and support.  Implications for practice and further research were developed.

Glenn, Laura: Educational Haptic Games for Visually Impaired Children [(10:24)(1B)(ASC315)] This project is a proof of concept for interactive educational haptic computer software for all users, particularly the visually impaired.  It is an exploration of the concepts of combining virtual touch with shape, texture, and sound using the PHANToMTM Desktop haptics device from SensAble Technologies, Inc.®  Haptics is an area of science concerning the sense of touch.  Initial exploration begins with creating a prototype of Memory FoToS (Form, Touch, and Sound), a memory game that has been designed to use the tactile senses of the user to find matches.

Gray, Stephanie: Attitudes Toward Foreign Languages at WJU  [(2:54)(3C)(D129)] I will show graphs to prove that students at WJU have positive attitudes toward foreign languages at WJU. I will also explain the importance of learning a foreign language. I will present some statistical information that proves the need to study a foreign language.  Co-Author:  Beau Conaway

Grayhem, Pamela:  Effects of peppermint odor on increasing clerical office-work performance [(1:00)(P2)]  Previous research concerning the administration of an odorant during cognitive and physical tasks has indicated that peppermint odor can enhance task performance.  The present study investigated the ability of peppermint odor to augment tasks involved in clerical office-work, specifically typing performance, memorization ability, and alphabetization ability.  Participants performed the experiment on two separate occasions, once in the presence of peppermint odor and once in an no-odor control condition.  Twenty-eight participants' typing duration, gross speed, accuracy, and net speed was assessed using two typing lists of comparable difficulty.  Memorization ability was measured using an electronic memory apparatus.  Alphabetization was measured according to the number of words alphabetized in 30 sec, taking into consideration the number of errors, using two word lists of comparable difficulty.  The odor condition and the order of the tasks were randomized.  Results indicated a significant difference in the gross speed [t(24)= .-10.269, p<.001], net speed [t(24)= -8.76, p<.001], and accuracy [t(25)= -2.13, p<.05] on the typing task, such that peppermint odor improved performance.  Alphabetization ability also improved significantly under the odor condition [t(25)= -3.36, p<.01].  No significant results were found for memorization [t(25)= -.86, p>.05].  These results suggest that the presence of peppermint odor may promote a general arousal of attention, thus keeping participants focused on their clerical tasks.

Haddad, Whitney: Cardiovascular differences between forward and backward walking [(1:00)(P14)] Previous studies have shown that backward walking produces greater changes in vital signs when compared to forward walking.  It has also been shown that women tend to walk with a shorter but faster step length when compared to men.  The purpose of this study is to verify the results of previous studies on vital signs in backward walking verses forward walking and to identify any difference in vital sign changes in males verses females walking forwards and backwards. Participants will consist of five males and five females between the ages of 20 and 30 in good health.  Participants will walk forward for three minutes, stop, and vitals will be recorded; then they will walk for another three minutes, stop, and vitals will be taken.  The same procedure will be repeated for backward walking.  The order of this procedure will be randomly assigned to each participant.  Co-Author:  Maurice Habineza

Hatley, Shawna:  Using autogenics to change skin temperature [(1:00)(P11)] Biofeedback is a training technique that enables an individual to gain some element of voluntary control over autonomic body functions.  It is based on the learning principle that a desired response is learned when received information, such as a recorded decrease in skin temperature (feedback) indicates that a specific thought complex or action has produced the desired physiological response. The use of autogenics as a type of training technique to elicit biofeedback responses is the focus of the experiment described here.  Autogenics is centered around the process of repeating verbal phrases in a highly structured and repetitive manner.  The phrases are each focused on a particular effect, each related to states of deep relaxation in some way  ( ).  Moore and Wiesner (1996) found that patients who were participants in the autogenic condition showed significant increases in hand temperature between pre- and post-treatment (autogenics).  The patients in this condition repeated the phrase, "My hand is getting warmer."  The purpose of our study is to see if by using autogenics, containing phrases such as, "My hand is feeling cooler," or "My skin is getting cold," will actually lower subjects skin temperatures.  Based on past findings, we hypothesize that by using autogenics with cooling phrases, the participants skin temperatures will actually decrease.  Co-Author:  Brian Beaver

Hendershot, Tyler J.: PKC-a Catalytic Subunit Modulates Polyp-like Foci in the Cell Li LLC-Pk1 [(2:41)(3D)(ASC212)] Tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tertadecanoyl-13-phobol acetate (TPA) is one of the most potent activators of protein kinase C (PKC).  It has been shown that there is an accumulation of protein kinase M (PKM) the down-regulated, catalytically active fragment of PKC in cells following their exposure to TPA.  The formation of PKM may play a role in the tumor-promoting effects of phorbol esters because it is a catalytically active and unregulated protein kinase.  To investigate the role of PKM, the plasmid pUHD 10-3 will be utilized.

Hetzel, Kristen: The Effects of an Icebath on Muscle Recovery  [(3:56)(4D)(ASC212)] The purpose of my research project is to determine whether an icebath will increase the rate at which muscles recover. An icebath involves immersing one's legs into water that is 55-59 degrees Fahrenheit. My hypothesis is that receiving an icebath after intense training will lower the CK levels (which indicate muscle damage) in the blood serum. The subjects were ten distance runners (five males and five females) on the Wheeling Jesuit cross-country team. The distance runners engaged in a two-week period of training in which the training for each runner was kept the same for both weeks. The first week the runners did not receive an icebath after training, and the second week the runners received an icebath every day after training. Three blood samples were taken: an initial sample to serve as a baseline, a sample taken at the end of the first week (no icebath), and a sample taken at the end of the second week (icebath). The CK values were then analyzed and showed that the CK levels decreased with an icebath, thereby facilitating muscle recovery.

Hewitt, Jessica: Case Study of an "At Risk" Elementary Student [(4:09)(4A)(ASC313)] The research consists of a case study of an at risk elementary student that was referred by the school administration.  The student's physical, emotional, psychological, academic, behavioral and social development was studied, interviews were conducted with teachers, school personnel and family members, the student was observed in the regular school setting, and cumulative records of test scores, grades and performance were reviewed.  A Modified Educational Plan was developed for this student based on the information developed.  The MEP includes specific intervention strategies to maximize the student's potential in the regular school setting.  Implementation will be made by the school system with parental involvement and support.  Implications for practice and further research were developed.

Ho, Mandy: Educational Technology: Effective Use of Technology In Education [(11:00)(2C)(D332)] Technology is commonly misused in the field of education. It is vital for educators to know how to optimize the use of technology in classroom curricula. Technology can be a powerful facilitator in the educational setting if it is used effectively and creatively. However, if misused, it could be more of a hindrance. Therefore, it is essential for educators to distinguish the difference between the benefits and detrimental aspects of the use of technology.

Howard, Stephanie: Case Study of an At Risk Elementary Student [(11:13)(2A)(ASC313)] The research consists of a case study of an at risk elementary student that was referred by the school administration.  The physical, emotional, psychological, academic, behavioral and social development of the student was studied.  Also, interviews were conducted with teachers, school personnel and family members.  The student was observed in the regular school setting, and cumulative records of test scores, grades and performance were reviewed.  A Modified Educational Plan was developed for the student studied based on the information collected. The MEP includes specific intervention strategies to maximize the student's potential in the regular school setting.  Implementation will be made by the school system with parental involvement and support.  Implications for practice and further research were developed.

Hunt, Ronnie Mc Cree: Hydrocarbons in the atmosphere [(4:09)(4D)(ASC212)] The Consol Coal Company has set up an air quality testing scheme throughout the Ohio Valley area.  One of the machines used in there testing is being supervised on the Wheeling Jesuit University Campus. Over the summer I collected these filters and, in return, Consol has given me test filters to test for volatile organic carbons.  Testing would be done using the Gass ChromatographMass Spectrometer (Mass Spec) and findings will be posted in the presentation.

Jankowski, Matt: E-Commerce Website User Interface Research and Design [(2:41)(3B)(ASC315)] With the increasing number of people who use the Internet for business, the way interfaces are designed is becoming more important.  Our research focus is the efficiency of e-commerce website user interfaces and the various features users find pleasing and annoying.  We believe the difficulties of today’s interfaces lie in two areas: navigation and look-and-feel.  Through extensive research and subject testing, we have designed a user interface for a used goods website that incorporates many of the basic features necessary for a good user interface and many of the features that users desire.  Ultimately, our website will display an increase in navigation efficiency and an overall user satisfaction of the look-and-feel of the website as compared to the various websites we tested users on.  Co-Author:  Drew Formica

Joung, Jaewoo: BMP to SEW [(2:15)(3B)(ASC315)] BMP2SEW is a full 32 bit program written for Windows 95/98/NT which uses the perl interpreter to execute it. It can be either command line application, or windows executable.  BMP2SEW will convert bitmap files to some other file format that will generate the command for a sewing machine to work.

Klein, Aubrey: Reading Attitudes [(2:15)(3A)(ASC313)] This presentation demonstrates the changes in the reading attitudes of 4th graders over a 4 week period of non-traditional reading instruction

Koon, Jerrod:  Effects of odorant administration on pain, mood, workload, and anxiety [(1:00)(P4)]  Based on research showing certain odors significantly increase physiological arousal, cognitive performance, and physical performance in humans, as well as increase pain tolerance in rats, the present study was designed to determine if certain odors could increase human participants' ratings of and tolerance to pain.  Participants (n=158) placed their hand in a a cold pressor pain apparatus (3 C water) and were asked to report pain level using a 0-10 scale every 30 sec, to a maximum of 5 min.  During testing, participants wore nasal cannulas that administered either unadulterated low-flow (3L/min) oxygen (control condition), peppermint odor plus oxygen, or jasmine odor plus oxygen.  Following the pain test, participants completed questionnaires related to mood, perceived workload, and anxiety.  The results indicate peppermint odor significantly decreased ratings of pain over time and increased overall pain tolerance.  Participants also reported reduced mental, physical, and temporal workload requirements, decreased effort and frustration, and increased performance and vigor in the peppermint condition.  Physiologically, odorant administration resulted in an increase in oxygen saturation and blood pressure.  Incorporating past research on peppermint odor administration, the present study further indicates the ability of peppermint odor to distract participants from onerous tasks, and produce a psychological sense of greater performance and well-being.

Kozlowski, Ashley: The role of food neophobia and neophilia in psychophysical rating [(1:00)(P10)] Past research indicates that individual differences in human food neophobia (the reluctance to try new foods) and food neophilia (the overt willingness to try new foods) influence the evaluation of tastes and odors.  The present study was designed to assess whether psychophysical ratings by food neophobics and food neophilics are noted only for taste and odor stimuli, or are more general in scope.  Participants (n=111) rated taste intensity (applesauce, vanilla pudding, funistrada), odor intensity (coffee, orange, vanilla), visual brightness (100L, 200L, 300L), auditory intensity (25db, 40db, and 60db for a 4000Hz tone), and tactile hardness (cotton, wood, sponge) on a 21 point scale specific to each sensory modality.  In addition, participants completed the Food Neophobia Scale, and were placed into one of three data analysis
groups (data tri-split) based on their scores.  Confirming past research, food neophobics rated taste and odor stimuli as significantly more intense than neophilics.  However, the results showed no significant difference between the groups in their ratings of light intensity, auditory intensity, or tactile hardness.  Results indicate neophobia-related alteration of psychophysical ratings specifically in relation to taste and odor stimuli, providing no support for the contention of a more general neophobic personality trait or general sensory ratings bias.  Co-Author:  Breyan Tornifolio

Kranker, Lisanne:  Breaking Down Barriers:  Mount de Chantal’s Impact on the Wheeling Community [(4:09)(4C)(D129)]  Mount de Chantal had a dramatic impact on the Wheeling community at large, especially in terms of education and the growth of Wheeling as a city.  When the Sisters of the Visitation opened Mt. de Chantal in 1848, at the calling of Bishop Whelan, it was  the support of the wealthy Protestant Community that kept the school thriving in its earliest years.  The school helped the young women of the community for the Wheeling community had many factors influencing its growth and development, including sectionalism, nativisim, immigration, and industry.  Overall these factors played a major role in the development of the Wheeling community. 

Lang, K. Mackenzie: SCORE Skills Effects on Disabled Students’ Development of Social Skills [(2:41)(3A)(ASC313)] The study consisted of a social skills interventions program of five social skills, implemented in a 4th grade extended year summer program, and its effectiveness on the development of adequate social skills of students in special education.  The effects of the intervention were evaluated using pre and post student and teacher evaluations, student profiles, role-play evaluations, and free time observational charts.  The results indicate that special education students can cooperate, practice, and generate social skills through the use of direct instruction, cooperative work, hands-on-activities, family style dinners, and community based experiences.  This study also suggests a variety of students can benefit from a social skills intervention program at a variety of levels.

Lettich, Cristin: Spanish Perspectives of the United States Electoral Process [(9:45)(1D)(ASC212)] The purpose of this study was to examine the Spanish perspectives of the United States electoral process, with regards specifically to the 2000 Presidential Election.  The primary hypothesis for the study is: the Spanish perspective of the United States electoral process, specifically concerning the 2000 presidential election, will be that the process is badly flawed by being overly complex and lacking in true representation.  The second hypothesis is: despite the perceived flaws, the Spanish will view the electoral process of the United States as a clear display of the democratic process working well in the United States.  The final hypothesis is that the Spanish will consider the election process of the United States as more democratic than the electoral process in their parliamentary monarchy form of government. Participants in the study were eight male and eight female Spanish citizens of legal voting age.  The ages ranged from 20 years old to 54 years old.  Using an interview guide, participants were asked about their perspectives on the electoral process and democracy in the United States.  The main results of the study indicate that, overall, participants felt as if there were flaws within the United States electoral process and that Spain was more democratic.

Malik, Mohammad A.: Hydrogen Production and Storage with Chemical Hydrides [(11:26)(2B)(ASC213)] Fuel cells, devices capable of converting stored chemical energy to electricity in a fashion similar to batteries, possess the ability to be clean and efficient electrical energy sources having efficiencies as high as 60% and producing no pollution. Hydrogen is a major engineering issue that is presently keeping fuel cells from entering applications as varied as automobiles and remote power sources. The fuel cell with the widest potential market requires hydrogen as fuel and hydrogen is not readily available.  It is difficult to store and is quite expensive at this time.  Hydrogen can be stored under pressure, as an adsorbed species on some selected metals and carbon, and as a chemical hydride, which is released upon reaction with water. This paper discusses the potential of this latter technology and presents some preliminary data for the use of the chemical hydride as a fuel for ocean navigation buoys.

McCumbers, Rebecca: An Exhortation on Penitence:  Christianity Made Useful for Politics [(10:11)(1D)(ASC212)] One of the most debated principles in Niccolo Machiavelli's political philosophy is his treatment of Christianity.  Both critics and admirers of Machiavelli's religious views struggle to interpret the paradox of his thoughts.  In his writings, specifically The Prince and The Discourses, Machiavelli juxtaposes criticism of and complements to Christianity in a way that creates confusion over whether or not he is a believer in or hater of Christianity.  Many defenders of Machiavelli point to a lesser-known work, An Exhortation on Penitence, to prove that Machiavelli admired the sacred truths of Christianity.  It is the goal of this presentation, however, to communicate that this work, too, serves as another example of Machiavelli's tendency to promote religion as merely a useful tool for those wishing to gain political power.

Mercer, Jessica:  Social Networks of Elderly Women Aging-in-Place:  A Cross Cultural Analysis [(1:00)(P6)] Throughout life, people rely on social networks for intimacy and instrumental support, that is, help in getting tasks accomplished.   This is especially true in the lives of older people. Recently, the role of friendship in the lives of older women has been a major topic of interest (Armstrong & Goldstein, 1990).   The goal of this study was to examine informal support and friendships through the comparison of older African American and Caucasian women who live alone in residences in the community.  We examined the role of social networks by looking at five aspects:  instrumental support, emotional support, history of friendships, frequency of contact, and content of friendships, along with demographic factors such as fiscal resources and abilities/disabilities.  Participants were identified residents of the Wheeling area.  The study was conducted as an informal interview, using Antonucci’s (1986) hierarchical mapping technique for social support networks, and subsequent questions were asked regarding the five aforementioned aspects of support.  Co-Author:  Krissy Keller

Michel, Marsha: World Band and Social Development: The Case of Indonesia [(9:58)(1D)(ASC212)] This study examines the role of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank or Bank) in Indonesia. The World Bank has been accused of being an institution out of time and place. Today many critics of the Bank see it as oppressing developing countries and keeping them in a state of total dependency. In the meantime, the World Bank maintains that it is helping and making a great impact on social development.  The researcher used books from the Bishop Hodges Library, UNICEF publications, the World Bank annual reports, and the United Nations Statistical Year Book for Asia and the Pacific 1998.  This research emphasizes the importance of social development in third world countries and demonstrates that the World Bank is not doing enough to help social development. The findings of this research suggest that there needs to be a better approach and a better understanding of social development. This research also shows that there are other factors that affect social development besides the World Bank.

Murray, Brad:  The Bicycle Patrol Program:  An Old Style of Patrolling with New-Aged Benefits [(11:00)(2D)(ASC212)] The purpose of this research study was to examine and assess the newly implemented bicycle patrol program of the Wheeling Police Department to determine officer morale, cost effectiveness, and crime deterrence.   To gather the necessary information to complete this study, the researcher distributed a self-administered survey to each of the 42 officers that are involved in the bicycle patrol program to determine whether or not officer morale is affected by this alternative style of patrolling. The researcher examined existing documents to evaluate the cost effectiveness of bicycle policing. Copies of the Uniform Crime Report were also gathered to determine whether or not crimes were deterred since the bicycle patrol program was implemented in the city of Wheeling.  After examining the information gathered, the researcher found support that bicycle policing is cost effective and improves officer morale. Information regarding crime statistics was somewhat supportive for this research but not conclusive.

Norris, Katie: Case of an At Risk Elementary Student [(9:58)(1A)(ASC313)] The research consists of a case study of an at risk elementary student that was referred by the school administration.  The student's physical, emotional, psychological, academic, behavioral, and social development was studied, interviews were conducted with teachers, school personnel, and family members, the student was observed in the regular school setting, and cumulative records of test scores, grades and performance were reviewed.  A Modified Educational Plan was developed for this student based on the information developed.  The MEP includes specific intervention strategies to maximize the student's potential in the regular school setting.  Implementation will be made by the school system with parental involvement and support.  Implications for practice and further research were developed.

Obha, Mari Ann: State forces in a Market [(11:52)(2D)(ASC212)]  The purpose of this study was to show the relationship between the state and market in Japan.  In particular, it analyzed the role of the Japanese government in the development of the steel industry.  This distinctive role of the state in the market can give some piece of Japan’s economic development puzzle to other developing nations.  In essence, this research will help other developing nations in deciding whether to increase state influence for the purpose of economic development at a more rapid pace.  The procedure for the research went as follows: literature was collected, key variables were defined, an analysis plan was constructed, and the research results were analyzed. The major results of the analysis included the three Modernization Programs in which the government implemented several means to promote the growth of the steel industry into an international competitor in the export market.

Patterson, Siobhan: So, you think you’re going to a Jesuit school? [(2:28)(3C)(D129)] We, in the Philosophy of Jesuit Education class (PHI-250 with Fr. O'Brien), are supposing that there is a lack of understanding and appreciation of "Jesuit education" among WJU students.  We typically use the Jesuit "vocabulary" (jargon?) or perhaps "terminology".  But the members of this Philosophy class have the sense that a more deeply rooted understanding of Jesuit education among students would be of great benefit and would support or enhance their whole educational experience.  We propose to survey the student body to determine if our supposition is indeed factually based, and we wish and to present our findings at the Student Research Symposium.  Furthermore, we hope to incorporate the results of this study into a presentation for the faculty and administration of WJU in an effort to encourage a greater insight and enthusiasm for the special benefits we are gaining here.  Co-Authors:  Zachary Conron, Rebecca McCumbers, Philip Patrick, and Jeffrey Smith.

Peake, Renea: Hidden Voices: The History of Prostitution in Wheeling, WV [(3:56)(4C)(D129)] Explores the history of prostitution in Wheeling, WV. Discusses why and how it developed and reasons for why it is not around today.

Perkins, Jessica: Effects of motivation and competitiveness on pain threshold and respiration [(1:00)(P3)] Motivation, competitiveness, and gender differences were tested using a cold pressor pain test.  Forty-six participants (22 males, 24 females) were placed into one of three groups, designated by informing the participants how long the "average" person is able to withstand the cold pressor pain test.  These groups consisted of 1) a control group, where no information was given concerning the average person's performance, 2) a 30-sec group, in which participants were told the average person can withstand 30 sec of testing, and 3) a 4 min-30 sec group, in which participants were told the average person can withstand 4 min and 30 sec of testing.  Participants were asked to rate their level of competitiveness on a scale of 1-10, with 1 being not competitive and 10 being highly competitive, as well as completing a questionnaire related to intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation.  The average tolerance of males (135.33 sec) significantly exceeded that of females (116.05).  There was no significant association between competitive ratings and pain tolerance.  There was no significant difference found between the participant's type of motivation, either intrinsic or extrinsic, and the amount of time that the participant's hand was immersed.  Males rated themselves as more competitive, but there was no difference in pain tolerance based on ratings of competitiveness.  There was a significant difference in pain tolerance between the 30-sec group (73.87 sec) and the 4 min-30 sec group (179.38 sec).  The results indicate a motivational aspect of pain tolerance, related to a priori instructional protocols.  Co-Authors:  Breyan Tornifolio, A. McCune, and K. Zambito.

Prosperi, Rena: Case Study of an At Risk Elementary Student [(3:43)(4A)(ASC313)] The research consists of a case study of an at-risk elementary student who was referred by the school administration.  The student's physical, emotional, psychological, academic, behavioral, and social development was studied.  Interviews were conducted with teachers, school personnel and family members. The student was observed in the regular school setting, and cumulative records of test scores, grades and performance were reviewed.  A Modified Educational Plan was developed for this student based on the information developed.  The MEP includes specific intervention strategies to maximize the student's potential in the regular school setting.  Implementation will be made by the school system with parental involvement and support.  Implications for practice and further research were developed.

Reagan, Bridgid: Gender Role Effects on Toy Selection [(3:56)(4A)(ASC313)] The purpose of my study is to see if children choose toys based on their perceived gender roles. I charted the toys that were picked out to see if the girls only played with "girl" toys and if the boys only chose "boy" toys. As a future educator, I want to see if children may have perceived gender roles that bias their toy selection, so that I can work to eliminate them. My hypothesis was that the toddler class would not have perceived gender roles biasing their selection.  However, I predicted that the preschool class would begin to choose "girl" and "boy" toys.

Record, Matthew J.: Case Study of an At Risk Elementary Student [(11:26)(2A)(ASC313)] The goal of this case study is to develop a Modified Educational Plan for an at risk elementary student which can be used by the classroom teacher and specialists, with the student's parents, to determine the best interventions to ensure the student success in the educational environment.

Reese, Angela: Boomer Plauge: Educating others about Alzheimer’s Disease [(9:45)(1C)(D332)] Educating others about Alzheimer's Disease Education is crucial to increasing awareness of what the future holds for people with Alzheimer's Disease.  The project, a public relations proposal, includes several parts. One is the creation of an in-depth educational program covering areas from "What is Alzheimer's" to "Dealing with End-Stage AD" for groups such as The Alzheimer's Association. The parts of the public relations proposal which will be used to increase awareness of the program include: an organizational internal and external audit, a ladder of the process in which the audience goes from ignorance to action, a budget, a calendar of events and a variety of PR tools such as press releases, brochures, advertisements, a newsletter and a web page.

Robinson, Mark:  Extimating submaximal isometric strength [(1:00)(P13)]  Co-Author:  Doug Williams

Schierloh, Emilie M.:  Synthesis of Indium (III) Dithiocarbamate Complexes from Monosubstituted Am [(2:15)(3D)(ASC212)] The purpose of this experiment is to develop a transition metal complex which can easily be decomposed into a metal sulfide.  This complex will then be submitted to the Glenn NASA Research Center for possible use in photovoltaic cells.  The metal sulfide will be deposited on the surface of the photovoltaic cell and is thought to increase the efficiency of the system.  These photovoltaic cells will then be used as part of the power source for a plane that NASA hopes to have orbit Mars for two years.  The ligands prepared in this project were all dithiocarbamates synthesized from monosubstituted amines.  This dithiocarbmate ligand was then combined with indium nitrate to form the metal complex.  All compounds were recrystallized when possible and then studied closely. These metal complexes were examined using IR spectra, elemental analysis, decomposition range, and, in some cases, the gas-chromatograph  mass spectrometer.  Co-Authors:  Aloysius Hepp and Janice Eva Lau

Sgroi, Ben: Simple Robotics and the Web [(9:45)(1B)(ASC315)] The purpose of this project is to explore the control and use of simple robotics through Internet technologies.  The robotics kit used is the Lego Mindstorms set, which was chosen for its cost-effectiveness and ease of use.  Additionally, support and examples for the Mindstorms kit are widely available on the Internet.  The Lego brick that acts as the "mind" for the robot, the RCX, was programmed using a special programming language called NQC.  The interface to the user was created using dynamic HTML pages driven by the web scripting language ASP. This allows for an application that reacts and interacts to the user's inputs. Examples of the applications developed for the robot include a remote control program that accepts real-time commands from the user and an automated program that searches for and follows a black line on the ground. Co-Author:  Mark Rodenhauser.

Sneigle, Rebecca: Case Study of an At Risk Elementary Student [(10:11)(1A)(ASC313)] The research consists of a case study of an at risk elementary student that was referred by the school administration.  The student's physical, emotional, psychological, academic, behavioral, and social development were studied, interviews were conducted with teachers, school personnel and family members, the student was observed in the regular school setting, and cumulative records of test scores, grades, and performance were reviewed.  A Modified Educational Plan was developed for this student based on the information reviewed.  The MEP includes specific intervention strategies to maximize the student's potential in the regular school setting.  Implementation will be made by the school system with parental involvement and support.  Implications for practice and further research were developed.

Shepard, Jennifer: Analysis of Major Pollutants in Urban and Rural Lake Erie Tributaries [(3:43)(4D)(ASC212)] Thirty years ago Lake Erie was considered a "dead" lake, with garbage and rotting fish regularly washing up onto beaches. Fertilizer runoff and raw sewage caused massive algae blooms that starved fish of oxygen.  The Cuyahoga River, one of the main tributaries of Lake Erie, was so polluted with oil, logs, sewage, and every other kind of garbage that it caught fire on June 22, 1969. Thanks to the Clean Water Act and the Great Lakes Water Quality agreement of 1972, overflows from most municipal sewer systems have been reduced and factories no longer treat the lake and its tributaries as their private cesspool.  Despite all this, pollutants can still be found in Lake Erie; which run in from the lake's many tributaries. This project examines three main Lake Erie tributaries in Northeast Ohio. The project was designed to determine if three main contaminants are still present in the water and, if so, at what levels.  The contaminants analyzed included heavy metals, nitrogenous waste, and phosphates.  Also, in looking at these tributaries, a difference between urban and rural contamination could be observed.

Shirley, Eric: Evaluation of Environmental Studies Program at Wheeling Jesuit University [(1:00)(P2)] This experiment is designed to evaluate the Environmental Studies Program here at Wheeling Jesuit University. Through comparison of other Environmental Programs at other universities and colleges to the Environmental Program here at Wheeling Jesuit University I will be able to show if there needs to be a change in the Environmental Program here.  I found that larger schools offer more environmental courses and schools approximately the same size have more options for classes in their Environmental Programs.

Smith, Justin: Virtual McDonough Center [(3:43)(4B)(ASC315)] This project includes one aspect of Human Computer Interaction, 3D modeling. The goal was to make a 3D representation of the McDonough Center, replicating the colors, textures, and structures that make up this building. To construct a virtual McDonough Center, Virtual Reality Markup Language (VRML) was used. VRML is a web based 3D modeling tool that can be used to build 3D environments that can be viewed online.  Upon completion of the virtual McDonough Center, it was found that while it was possible to closely mimic this structure, it could not be perfectly replicated. The sheer size of the building, the complexity of its structures, and our lack of time and experience were hindrances.  Nevertheless, an individual can get an accurate feel of this building with the 3D representation without actually visiting the McDonough Center.  Co-Author:  Matt Puthoff.

Sutton, William B.: The Effects of the Higher Alcohols Phenylethanol, Tryptophol, and Tyrosol upon a Whitbread Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [(2:54)(3D)(ASC212)] Three higher alcohols of the Ehrlich Pathway (Phenylethanol, Tryptophol, and Tyrosol) are prominent products of fermentation during yeast metabolism.  Although these higher alcohols are found in minute quantities within beer, they have drastic effects upon bonquet and flavor.  It is through fermentation that these higher alcohols will accumulate and could potentially become toxic to the yeast.  In a time concentration study, it was discovered that after six hours, the LD50 values for these higher alcohols were as follows:  Phenylethanol 36.2 mM, Tryptophol 19.0 mM, and Tyrosol (little affect at 45.5 mM, resulting in 89% viability).  After twelve hours the LD50 values for these higher alcohols were as follows:  Phenylethanol 25.2 mM, Tryptophol 11.5mM, and Tyrosol (significant toxicity at 45.5 mM, resulting in 58% viability).  From this data, it is apparent that Tryptophol is twice as toxic as Phenylethanol, while Tyrosol shows toxicity only at high concentrations over extended periods of time.  A possible explanation of toxicity could be competitive inhibition of these higher alcohols with respective essential aromatic amino acids could potentially halt biosynthesis of these amino acids and over time induce toxicity. 

Thomas, Chad:  Nanoparticles: Advanced Materials [(3:56)(4B)(ASC315)]  In accordance with the requirements for TEC-206, Evolution of Technology II, I am conducting research on concrete admixtures, intended to increase the plasticity of the hardened mixture.  Increasing the plasticity of the concrete mix is desirable, so as to counteract the forces incurred by the construction, in the event of an earthquake.  To give the reader/audience a greater understanding of the project, the following sentences will discuss the procedures followed in establishing the effects of the addition of Aluminum Oxide to the concrete mix.  The admixture used in this test will be Aluminum Oxide.  The first test will be on a normal concrete mix of Portland cement, aggregate (gravel & sand), and water, with no addition of Aluminum Oxide.  The Aluminum Oxide will be added starting with the second test.  In the second test, Aluminum will be added in the amount of 5 grams.  This amount will remain consistent for TEST 2A, B, & C.  In the third test, Aluminum will be added in the amount of 10 grams.  This amount will remain consistent for TEST 3A, B, & C.  In the fourth test, Aluminum will be added in the amount of 15 grams.  This amount will remain consistent for TEST 4A, B, & C.   Three tests at each amount to establish reliability.  The results obtained in the experimental or testing phase will be carefully documented to gain a greater understanding of how the structural integrity of the concrete changes with the addition of the Aluminum Oxide. Precise, accurate documentation will also help establish a sound starting point if further experiments are deemed necessary.  This section will also list other experiments of this type currently being conducted by any private organizations or universities, with the inclusion of any pertinent findings or results.  Following the testing, and documentation phases, conclusions will be established concerning the effects on the concrete due to the different amounts of added Aluminum Oxide.  At this point recommendations will be made concerning the necessity for future testing.

Tuttle, Traci: Study Strategies in the Special Education Classroom:  A Case Study [(10:24)(1A)(ASC313)] While student teaching, I have implemented new ideas in study strategies in the special education department at Wheeling Park High School.  In this presentation, I will describe the current system of instruction, the strategies I have implemented (including the University of Kansas Strategies and the Wilson Reading Program), student progress with and without the strategy instruction, and my conclusions.

Tuttle, Traci: So Many Intelligences… So Little Time [(11:52)(2A)(ASC313)] The PT3 grant and students in the Teacher Preparation Program have been working to address the needs of at-risk students in the classroom by targeting multiple intelligences.  This presentation will give a brief history of multiple intelligences, characteristics of at-risk middle-schoolers, a description of the PT3 grant and the lesson the presenters have designed, and a short description of their observations in the classroom.  Co-Authors:  Stacey Pyles, Nicole Shook, Mark Hladek, and Michael Conway.

Weaver, Tim: Online Courses [(3:30)(4B)(ASC315)] This project entailed developing an online course.  Under the subject of Human Computer Interaction, the goal was to implement an attractive package similar to Blackboard’s Course Info currently being used by WJU.  This package allows for teachers to create their own online courses. Using this package the teacher only has to provide the content.  Another part of our goal was to create an online course using the package to show the teacher its capabilities.  In order to meet our goal, we met and discussed with many professionals that have worked with and developed online courses, to see how it was done.  We began developing our own online package and then our online course using different languages and software programs, which included: Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), Active Server Pages (ASP), Java Script, Macromedia Dreamweaver, Adobe Photoshop, and Microsoft Access.  The online course is a course in Weather for elementary students.  The course is a four-week course, to show the capabilities of the package.  Upon completion, we have a product that is an online package for both the student and the teacher.  Co-Author:  Michaela Myers.

Whyle, Tommy: The TommyAmp [(4:09)(4B)(ASC315)] The TommyAmp is what I named my first experience in designing software for playing audio, specifically music.  My lifelong love of music influenced me to inquire into the way a computer can reproduce this form of art.  After researching the physical aspect of this, I focused my inquiry on how one can provide access to this ability through an interface that is comfortable to the general public. Using Winamp as a reference-point, I formed a strategy for designing my own audio player.  I chose HTML, a language I commonly use for display, to set up the structure (or skin) and Java, a language with which I was not familiar, to design applets that provide the functioning of the player.  This obviously involved further research into Java, which is beneficial since it is widely used today for designing interface.  The program I developed, TommyAmp, allows users to browse their hard-drives for WAV files to load into a player similar to a cassette or CD player, and it also manages playlists defined by the user.  Though this may seem like obsolete functionality, the clear and logical setup suggests that the Amp may eventually evolve into a significant, useful product.

Wilson, Ian: Domestic Violence in the Law Enforcement Family [(11:13)(2D)(ASC212)] Previous research about consequences to police officers who are personally involved in domestic violence is practically non-existent.  Therefore, the purpose of this study was to solicit information about current police department policies and practices for officers who are convincted of committing a domestic violence offense.  And to determine what, if any, impact these policies and the 1994 federal law, which prohibited a person convicted of domestic violence from carry a gun, have had on police officers and departments regarding domestic violence.  Co-Author:  Latrisha Durbin.

Zavallo, Lynette: Cool Kids Cook:  A Summer Reading Program Used to Improve Readers’ Attitudes [(11:00)(2A)(ASC313)] Cool Kids Cook, a summer reading program that incorporates reading, writing, and computing, served as an intervention for 12-23 fourth and fifth grade students at Ritchie Elementary School in Wheeling, West Virginia, for remediation for at-risk readers.  The intervention consisted of a print-rich environment and modeling behaviors from teachers, aides, and volunteers.  It was posited that these students reading skills would improve if their attitudes toward reading could be improved.  A reading attitude survey served as a pre and post measurement. The majority of the measurement items showed improvement.

Zelek, Jared: The Spice of Life [(2:28)(3B)(ASC315)] John Conway's Game of Life is an interesting application of Cellular automata in which cells are born, persist, and die depending on neighbors of the pervious generation.  Extending from Conway's simple binary life representation, I have introduced colors to enhance the effects of heritage.  The eventual goal is to explore the possible real world applications of this phenomenon.

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