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Dr. Bryan Raudenbush
Email: raudenbc@wju.edu
Phone: 304-243-2330

2008 Abstracts

Explanation of the coding system:  The following abstracts are presented in alphabetical order by first author.  For the oral presentations, the information in the brackets includes the time of the presentation (e.g. 2:20), the session (e.g. 2C), and the location of the session (e.g. ASC-212).  For poster sessions, the bracketed information includes the time of the session (e.g. 12:45) and the poster board number where the poster is to be found (e.g. P4). 

Almeida, Jude; Wershing,Ben: The Effects of Peppermint Scent on Appetite and Caloric Intake [(1:00) (P1)] Previous research indicates that inhalation of certain scents may reduce hunger levels. The present study evaluated hunger levels during peppermint inhalation vs. non-inhalation, in addition to actual food consumption and dietary evaluation (e.g., fat intake, calorie intake, vitamin and mineral intake, etc.) over a period of two weeks. In a within-subjects design, participants completed a peppermint inhalation condition (administered every 2 hours) and a non-inhalation condition. Each condition was performed for 5 days during separate weeks. During the protocol, participants rated their hunger level every two hours and completed a food diary listing everything they consumed for the two five-day periods. Results indicated participants consumed significantly fewer total calories, calories from saturated fat, total fat, saturated fat, and sugar during the peppermint inhalation condition. Participants also rated their hunger level significantly lower while using the inhaler compared to the control condition. The primary implication of these results is that peppermint scent can be used as an effective adjunct to decrease appetite, decrease hunger cravings, and consume fewer calories, which may lead to weight reduction and greater overall health.

Atkinson, Melissa: The Right to Work: Should the Market be Required to Provide Jobs? [(10:20)(1C)(ASC-215)] This paper argues that there is a natural right to work, but this right does not entail the right to be given a job. The natural right to work is affirmed by the Roman Catholic Church, the American Declaration of Independence, and the United Nations, through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The argument will be developed by describing and applying the concepts of eudaimonia, freedom, private property, natural rights, and civil rights.

Bacon, Kristina: Variations in the Genetic Coding Sequence of AGP and its Effect on the Binding Rate of Docetaxel in the Blood Plasma of Prostate Cancer Patients [(2:40)(3C)(ASC-215)] Docetaxel is a drug used for the treatment of breast, lung, and prostate cancer.  The duration of time this drug resides in the body (its pharmacokinetics; PK) has shown to be highly variable among patients for whom it is prescribed; this variability is a primary cause of differences in patients' response to docetaxel.  Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) binds to docetaxel in the blood stream and is a major factor in the determination of docetaxel PK.  Studies have focused on the influence of variations in plasma AGP concentration.  Data suggest that polymorphisms in the AGP coding sequence may affect binding.  We are evaluating the influence and frequency of genetic polymorphisms in AGP on docetaxel PK in patients receiving the drug for prostate cancer treatment. Genomic DNA samples extracted from white blood cells of patients treated with docetaxel are used to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the coding region of AGP.  Genotyping results were obtained from two of the seven essays.  Although each assay contained samples where at least one copy of the polymorphism was present, none of the samples tested were shown to contain both SNPs.  Among all samples, the largest difference in number of copies of SNPs is two. Our sample size is therefore too small to state conclusively that these polymorphisms are the cause of variability in docetaxel PK. In order to draw further conclusions concerning the effects of these polymorphisms on drug binding, the five assays with undetermined results must be reevaluated.

Bowden II, David: Verbal Feedback Promotes Heart Rate Discrimination [(3:40)(3A)(ASC-212)] Previous research has demonstrated that people can be trained to discriminate heart rate (HR).  We designed a HR discrimination procedure utilizing an inexpensive, commercially produced HR monitor that is easy for non-professionals to use in sport and fitness settings.  We had two participants run on a treadmill in an alternating treatments design in which we varied running speed and session duration. Verbal feedback was provided for the participant's HR during discrimination training sessions.  Participant one was further tested across different incline conditions, and transfer was assessed on an alternate task that involved kickboxing a heavy bag.  Dependent measures in all conditions included participants' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE; Borg, 1996) and estimated HR in beats per minute (bpm).  Accuracy of estimates was assessed across both feedback and non-feedback conditions. Both participants demonstrated improvement in the accuracy of their HR estimates.  Participant one was given feedback during the first session, but nonetheless showed errors diminishing after feedback from 8.7 bpm down to 3.9 bpm.  Transfer to boxing resulted in less accuracy (errors from 4.7 to 7.1 bpm), but remained significantly below baseline rates.  The second participant erred by 26.3 bmp before feedback, improving to 4.2 bpm by the last session. The correlations between guessed and actual HR improved and remained relatively stable across conditions.  We hypothesize that cues such as fatigue and rate of breathing may provide the stimuli by which HR discrimination occurs.  Having established the viability of our procedure, field applications can now be tested.

Brandt, Justin: For Justice's Sake, Objectivity: A Critique of Richard Rorty [(11:50)(2A)(ASC-212)] There is no difference between right and wrong; there is only the majority's opinion.  In today's world, morality is relative and based on a subjective reality.  Such thinking, however, is devastating to the stability of society and the common good of human flourishing.  Modern societies such as the United States commonly fall into the dangers of relativist thinking and risk becoming moral anarchies. Richard Rorty correctly depicts the political Left as having plummeted into relativism and retrospective thought as a result of its shift from social activist agency towards spectatorship.  In addition, Rorty's use of Dewey's pragmatism leads to a relativism similar to what J. Budziszewski identifies as the moral error of narrative communitarianism.  To heal this error, a turn towards objective reality, which is evidenced by the experience of beauty, is essential, and Jane Addams accurately identifies social justice's need for an identity reconstruction attaining solidarity. Because identity reconstruction is nearly impossible, however, Rorty's new reformist Left will likely never emerge.

Cain, Sean: Hi-Lo Evac Endotracheal Tube's Fight to Decrease Ventilator-Associated Pneumonias [(1:00) (P11)] A bench study will be performed to show how effective the Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (ETT) will be at removing the secretions above the endotracheal tube's cuff to reduce the risk of causing ventilator-associated pneumonias(VAP). The research will compare the Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube to a conventional endotracheal tube without a suction lumen. The Hi-Lo Evac ETT and a traditional ETT will be placed in two separated 50cc ventilator circuit tubes and inflated with a cuff manometer to a minimum occluding volume (MOV) with pressures between 20-30 cm H2O. The tubes within the ventilator circuit tubes will be placed within two separate graduated cylinders to measure the amount of water that seeps past the cuff. The tubes will be secured to the graduated cylinders with tape and with an eye dropper 15cc of water will be added each hour to each tube to test how much secretions pass into the graduated cylinders. Each hour the water level within the graduated cylinders will be measured to see the amount of aspirated fluids that actually would be within the human lungs that could cause pneumonia.

Choi, DoBin; Hajiran, Ali J.: Construction of Tetracycline-Inducible SVEC 4-10 Endothelial Cell Line [(1:00) (P18)] Understanding gene function is one of the major goals of current research in cell biology. The most common method is to transfect DNA encoding specific genes into cells to observe changes in phenotype or behavior as a result of the expression of the transfected gene. The biggest drawback is that transfected genes may disrupt the function of endogenous genes. This often makes it difficult, if not impossible, to determine whether the observed change is due to the presence of a transfected gene or is merely an artifact of transfection. The creation of a cell line that allows the inducible expression of transfected genes would ensure that observed changes are due to gene expression rather than gene disruption. We have created tetracycline-inducible clones of the mouse endothelial line SVEC 4-10. Cells were transfected with the commercially-available TET-ON plasmid using lipofectamine. This plasmid contains a marker for resistance to neomycin. Thirty-six stable neomycin-resistant clones were obtained. We are in the process of characterizing these clones for cell morphology, growth rate, the expression of cell surface markers, and comparing them with untransfected SVEC 4-10 control cells. Clones that behave identically to control cells and that also express the Tet-R gene in an inducible fashion will be used in our angiogenesis research. The SVEC 4-10 cell line is already widely used as a model cell line in angiogenesis. The creation of an inducible SVEC cell line is expected to enhance future research efforts in this field.

Coleman, Candace: Behavioral Patterns and Color Vision in the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) [(1:00) (P24)] In the realm of mammals, color and hue discrimination is still widely unexplored. Four mammals were studied previously to test to what extent they could view color. Of the four mammals studied, two were definitively dichromatic while the others were incapable of being determined. In studying the giant panda, it was determined that they have some color vision, quite possibly even being dichromatic. Dogs and cats have been more extensively studied due to their non-endangered status and have been classified as dichromats after behavioral studies and studies of the eye structure were conducted. The red panda is an endangered animal from the Himalayas and has not been thoroughly studied either behaviorally or to test color vision. To begin the study of this animal, a behavioral study was conducted in which 2 subjects (1 male, 1 female) were observed over a period of seven months to learn how they behaved in their habit at Olgebay's Good Zoo. After the behavioral study was completed, the color vision of the red, panda was tested for color discrimination of blue, red, and green hues.  In three trials, blue, red and green served as positive stimuli and were paired with a comparison stimulus of gray.  It is hypothesized that the red panda will have at least some degree of color vision and be dichromatic. Thus far results have shown that the red pandas in this study are unable to see blue hues (scoring below chance) and are able to see red hues (scoring above chance). Upon completion of the green trials, results will show whether red pandas are dichromatic or monochromatic.

Conaway, Storm; Phillips, Michael: Selene: Learning the Past with Today's Technologies [(10:00)(1A)(ASC-315)] Selene is an education tool that teaches people about the moon's formation and evolution through various stages of gameplay and test evaluation.  The software engineering project involves writing a design document and a requirements document that outline what the final version of the project will look like and how it will perform. Along with writing these documents, research must also be conducted in order to make sure the game runs properly and to see how much students are learning throughout gameplay.  To test for how well people learn, a stratigraphy test is designed to have the users place five moon images in chronological order from the moon's oldest image to its most recent image. This test must be created in a way that the users can compare large scale images of the moon on the computer monitor, and therefore a design must be implemented to accommodate for the limited space available on the screen. Beyond this stratigraphy test, there will also be some short answer questions which will be analyzed by a text analyzing software to see how closely the user's responses match a set of defined keywords and concepts. Selene will allow students to learn about the moon in a way that is different from just reading a book or listening to a teacher lecture; the learning will involve complex graphical images and gameplay that will keep the students involved in hands-on learning.

Cyr, Nick E.: 9/11 - Acceleration Study Raises Questions [(11:50)(2B)(ASC-213)] The downward acceleration of the three World Trade Center skyscrapers on September 11, 2001 raises questions about the cause of the collapses. Values of acceleration obtained from video analysis suggests the official story is not truthful. This work considers alternate explanations.

DeRosa, Emily: Pulmonary Function Test: Athletes vs. Non-Athletes [(1:00) (P10)] This experiment is testing to see whether athletes have better pulmonary functions tests than non-athletes. Non-athletes are described as those people who do not participate in a sport on campus whereas athletes in this experiment are students who participate in cross country, track, and swimming. Different lung volume tests will be performed to compare the results of the different participants. If there is a greater improvement with the athletes' tests, this experiment would suggest that everyone should exercise to keep their lungs fit. If the results show that exercising in the areas of running and swimming do not show any improvement between non-athletes, then the difference between the two categories is insignificant. This test will resolve the question of whether to exercise to improve lung function.

DeRosa, Stephanie: Reference Theory Applied to Assimilation of Mongols [(3:20)(3B)(ASC-213)] Mongol culture is a minority in The People's Republic of China.  The research question for my thesis is as follows: Do the Mongol minority use Han Chinese culture as the main source of values and goals, thereby leading to a decrease in traditions (reference theory), in order to assimilate with the Han?  I hypothesize that the Mongols are using Han culture to assimilate with the rest of China.  I measure culture by reviewing the beliefs, language, religious and political affiliation of both Han and Mongols from recent years.  Then, I research the dress, language, customs, and rituals constituting the Mongol and Han groups. The research demonstrates whether or not these aspects of culture changed over time and if the Mongols borrowed from Han culture.  Next, I evaluate whether those aspects borrowed constituted a majority of the overall culture.  To test and answer this question I researched the existing data of others, especially the trends in their research, to test their theories and apply it to my own situation.  The question of the Mongols' situation is important to the field of social sciences because this case can be compared to other societies around the world to see if any patterns of assimilation emerge.  This thesis can also help us understand whether assimilation leads to animosity or peace, unity or divisions.  It is useful for government officials as well as others outside the discipline to understand the societal relations in their communities and the behavioral patterns of ethnic groups, for political, cultural, and business purposes.

Dumont, Jillian; Moody, Tracy; Bray, Patrick; Stupak, Sarah: The Usefulness of the Wii SportsTM Games in upper extremity Rehabilitation [(10:00)(1B)(ASC-212)] The purpose of this study is to measure the Active Range of Motion (AROM) that each participant uses when playing the different games of Nintendo's WiiTM Sports. This data will be compared to the functional range of motion required for various upper extremity rehabilitation protocols. There are 5 different games in WiiTM Sports including bowling, baseball, tennis, boxing, and golf, which can be used to produce various movements of the shoulder joint. Fifteen subjects ranging from 18-22 years of age will be chosen to participate in this study. These subjects will be enrolled in the University's undergraduate and physical therapy programs. Inclusion criteria will include that all participants have normal AROM as determined by an upper quarter screen (UQS). (One researcher will perform all of the UQSs.) The exclusion criteria will be any participants who have current or previous upper extremity (UE) pathologies. The WiiTM Sports game that includes bowling, baseball, tennis, boxing, and golf will be used. The Peak Motusâ Motion Capture System v.6.0ä will be used to capture the participants' AROM during game play. Average AROM will be determined for the shoulder joint after which a one-sample t-test will be used to compare the means of the AROMs for each game with the AROMs found for various upper extremity protocols. The researchers will use the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 15.0 for the analysis.

Gibbons, Greer: Do Caddisflies Need Cases for Respiration? [(3:40)(3C)(ASC-215)] Trichoptera, caddisflies, are a type of insect that are essential to aquatic systems.  Caddisflies are important to the environment because they shred organic detritus, which is the primary food material of most stream ecosystems.  As soon as the eggs hatch, the larvae build cases.  In their larval form, the flies are aquatic and build cases out of materials in the water bed and silk from the caddisfly itself. Early instars construct cases out of plant materials, usually bark and twig or leaf disks.  During the terminal instar of some species, the leaf cases are usually converted to cases of wood or rock fragments.  The cases are used for respiration, feeding, buoyancy, and camouflage. It is thought that caddisfly larvae use their case as a respiratory device to enhance efficiency. Larvae breathe through dorsoventral abdominal undulation so that the abdomen and gills are bathed in a current of continually renewed water. The purpose of this study was to determine if the caddisfly larvae case is necessary for respiration. I hypothesize that the Trichoptera will be able to survive without their cases.  We compared caddisfly larvae in control tanks with their cases to larvae without their cases, and larvae with case building materials.

Gomez, Sister Martha Teresa: A Policy Decision Paper Regarding the Needs of the Immigrants and Migrant Workers Residing and Working in the Diocese of Wheeling-Charleston [(10:40)(1D)(ASC-213)] The purpose of this project was to obtain current, factual information regarding the needs of Hispanic immigrants and migrant workers living or working in the Diocese of Wheeling-Charleston. The goal of this project was to identify beneficial programs that could reach out to unchurched Hispanics. The research questions were, "Are there immigrants and migrant workers in need of services that could be offered by the Catholic Church? Are there Hispanic leaders in the community? Would service providers like leadership assistance from the diocese?" These questions provided the basis for interviews with twenty-five immigrants and migrant workers and twenty service providers. Seven hypotheses were developed. Five hypotheses were accepted. One was not accepted as stated, but the need was listed as second with only an 8% difference in rating. One hypothesis was not accepted due to the lack of responses to this question. The results indicated that there were differences in the ratings of needs perceived, but no major differences. These results clarified the needs to be addressed. Three alternatives were considered for the study: Alternative 1, to maintain the Status Quo; Alternative 2, to follow a model Hispanic Pastoral Plan; Alternative 3, to form a Mobile Diocesan Hispanic Leadership Team (MDHLT).  Based on the data, the researcher recommended Alternative 3, to form a Mobile Diocesan Hispanic Leadership Team. The proposed pilot MDHLT will consist of personnel with the expertise to provide the services identified. The team will work in unison with parishes, local business, and volunteers.

Geer, Stephanie: Comparative Feeding Behaviors in the Ball Python (Python regius), the California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis gelutus californiae), and the Black Ratsnake (Elaphe obsoleta obsolete) [(3:20)(3C)(ASC-215)] The snake is unique in its feeding behavior because it lacks appendages and chewing mechanisms, leaving it to ingest its prey whole. With regard to feeding behavior, since current research suggests that 1. Ball pythons (n=4) use a single pattern of coil application for constriction despite differences in age, size, shape, habitat, and diet, and 2. Black rat snakes and California king snakes (n=2) have increased constriction strength compared to many other snakes, we hypothesize that ball pythons will demonstrate less variation in speed of strike, coil application, and constriction times when compared to the black rat snake and the California king snake. Additionally, we expect that the black rat snake and California king snake will demonstrate shorter constriction times when compared to the ball pythons. Video footage of feedings was collected and analyzed to compare coil application, speed of strike, and constriction times. Preliminary results indicate that the ball python is the most consistent with regard to strike speed and coil application, and that the black rat snake and California king snakes exhibit a notable increase in constriction time compared to the ball python. Relatively low standard deviations in speed of strike and constriction times for ball pythons appeared to increase with age and size; also, black rat snake and California king snake constriction times are on average ~14 s longer that the average ball python constriction time (~39 s). Data imply potential contest with previous studies; to confirm these observations, experiments must be repeated with larger sample sizes.

Hajiran, Ali: Effects of Transfected PKC-? Catalytic Fragment on Tet-Off Regulated Madin-Darby Kidney Epithelial Cell Line. [(1:00)(P16)] Epithelial cells that are passaged in the presences of phorbol esters (PE) for 8 weeks or longer exhibit polyp-like overgrowths similar to pre-cancerous lesions. It is generally accepted that the following PE activation, PKC is down regulated and degraded. Immunoblots of cell lysates showed that chronic exposure resulted in the production of a 46 KD fragment; however, these same cells showed little or no full length PKC-?. We hypothesize that continual exposure of epithelial cells to PE results in a cycle of activation and down regulation, resulting in a "steady state" level of catalytically active but unregulated protein kinase. The gene encoding the catalytic domain of PKC-? was cloned into the Tet-Off inducible vector system and tranfected into MDCK cells to determine if the expression of the catalytic fragment of PKC-? is sufficient to produce polyp-like foci. We are currently in the process of producing stable transfectants of these cells. (Support by NIH Grant 5P20RR016477 to the West Virginia IDeA Network for Biomedical Research Excellence)

Herron, Shannon Diane: The Effectiveness of the BiPAP Vision with Gas Leaks [(1:00) (P8)] This presentation will test the BiPAP Vision on a dummy using different types of face masks. The amount of gas leak will be recorded after each mask is used.  This experiment will determine which of the different face masks used provided the best seal and had the least amount of gas leaks.

Holmes, Noelle: Novel Metal Catalysts for Removing Sulfur from Organic Compounds [(12:10)(2B)(ASC-213)] Our research has focused on the preparation of new derivatives of the dithiocarbamate complexes of Mo(VI) and W(VI) as precursors to potentially effective catalysts.  Earlier attempts had successfully prepared the diethyl and dibenzyl derivatives, MoO2(S2CN(CH2CH3)2)2 and MoO2(S2CN(CH2C6H5)2)2.  We have attempted the preparation of MoO2(S2CN(CH2)4O)2 and MoO2(S2CN(CH2)4S)2, the morpholine and thiomorpholine derivatives as well as the dimethyl, MoO2(S2CN(CH3)2)2, di-isopropyl, MoO2(S2CN(CH(CH3)2)2)2, and benzyl, phenyl, MoO2(S2CN(CH2C6H5)C6H5 2 derivatives.  Elemental analyses have been obtained. We then turned our attention to the related pyrrolidne and piperidine derivatives, MoO2(S2CN(CH2)4)2 and MoO2(S2CN(CH2)5)2. These complexes will then be tested as catalytic materials for the conversion of thiophene to butene and hydrogen sulfide. Initial thermogravimetric analyses of pure complexes have yielded positive results.  The results indicate a 2-3 step decomposition ending with a residue of 28.52% at 375°C.  A residue of MoS3 would be 28.57%.  This is a promising indication of the potential for producing a potential catalyst.

Hooks, Jared: Fin Regeneration With Regards To Importance In The Largemouth Bass Under Room and Higher Temperatures. [(1:00) (P17)]  The phenomenon of fin regeneration has been studied for many years and for a multitude of reasons.  At the molecular level, this study can help to understand what processes, structures, and genes are responsible for this regeneration. Fin regeneration is also important for zoologists who do research to determine the importance of each fin's function by observing which fin is most adaptive to regenerate with the most efficiency.  My research has to do with which fin is adaptively able to regenerate at the fastest rate in different temperature water in four separate experimental tanks.  These experimental tanks will be of two different temperatures.  One tank will be 18°C and the other will be 25°C. Three fish will be placed in each tank and fins will be clipped accordingly.  Each of the six major fin groups will be tested in room (18-19) and warmer (24-25) water temperatures.  The fin regeneration will be measured weekly until they are fully developed.  Each fin has an adaptive function and the fin which regenerates to full size first may hint at which function is most important to the fish in the wild.  I expect to see that the pectoral fin will be the first to regenerate because they are mainly involved in balance of the fish.  Also, I believe that my results will show that the Spiny Dorsal fin will be the slowest to regenerate due to the fact that they are made of primarily spiny rays, which I believe will regenerate slower than soft rays.

Hunker, Ryan; Bloom, Jared; Wright, Tim: Video Game Performance: Nintendo Wii vs. Microsoft Xbox [(1:00) (P2)] Prior research has investigated the link comparing childhood obesity with activity participation, television viewing, and video game use. The current study used 27 participants to compare performance, mood, cognition, physiological measures, and snacking behavior between the Nintendo Wii and the Microsoft Xbox gaming systems. Each participant played a boxing game on the Wii, the Xbox, and in addition, a control condition.  The results of the study were analyzed using one-way repeated analyses. The results showed that there was a significantly higher blood pressure and pulse with the Wii than with either the Xbox or control conditions. The results also showed mental and physical demand were the highest in the Wii condition, and performance was also higher in the Wii condition. Furthermore, there were greater total and mean activity scores in the Wii condition which leads to a greater calorie expenditure. Results showed that the participants showed significantly more anger in the Wii condition than in the Xbox or the control condition. Finally, there was also a trend indicated by the results of the study showing that the most M&M's® were consumed in the control condition,followed by the Xbox, then the Wii.

Johnston, Ryan: The Existential Conjunction of Truth and Justice in the Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel [(12:10)(2A)(ASC-212)] This paper will show that the philosophy of Gabriel Marcel provides a starting point from which one can circumvent the epistemological problems of modern philosophy. Marcel's philosophy requires one to possess a disposition of hope, charity, and fidelity. This disposition allows one to fully appreciate existence.  An intimate relationship between oneself and the other is formed. This relationship is known as presence. It is through the presence of the other that one is able to recognize values within existence, values such as truth, justice and freedom.  hese values are universal in their nature, but they are only manifested in particular concrete situations. Thus, knowledge of them only comes from reflection on the particular. Truth, insofar as it is an existential value, arises from a properly ordered exercise of one's freedom. This ordered freedom is known as justice. So, existential truth is intrinsically linked to justice, in that, without one the other cannot be had.

Koral, Kelly: The Role of Actin Filament Associated Protein-110 in the Promotion or Inhibition of Angiogenesis in Mouse Vascular Endothelial Cells (SVEC 4-10) [(1:00) (P20)] When a tumor forms and grows larger than 1-2mm³, the tumor must motivate its host to create blood vessels for it in order for the tumor to continue to grow, which is tumor angiogenesis. In order to form new blood vessels or repair damaged ones, endothelial cells must undergo cell migration, proliferation and tube formation, which involves the rearrangement of the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton of the cell. Previous studies have shown that the signaling pathways required for angiogenesis to occur are protein kinase Cα (PKCα) and c-Src and these two pathways are connected to the actin cytoskeleton by binding to specific domains of a relay protein known as Actin Filament Associated Protein-110 (AFAP-110). AFAP-110 has an inherent capability of activating c-Src after it is activated. Following its activation, AFAP-110 mediates changes in the cytoskeleton. This indicates a possible role for AFAP-110 in the promotion or inhibition of angiogenesis in endothelial cells. The specific aims of this project are to create a fusion protein containing AFAP-110, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), and Antennapedia (AN) utilizing the pGEX vectors (6p1,6p2, and 6p3), which will be produced using a bacterial system. Following the creation of the fusion proteins, we plan to transfect Mouse Vascular Endothelial cells, SVEC 4-10, with the AFAP fusion proteins in order to determine AFAP-110s function in the tube formation of endothelial cells.

Kotik, Melissa: The Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 on Neuronal Survival [(1:00) (P25)] Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurological disease, which is characterized by the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, depletion of striatal dopamine, and motor dysfunction.  Dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter for the signal transduction necessary for smooth and balanced motor movements.  Because PD causes a loss of  opaminergic neurons, it results in decreased levels of dopamine in the brain leading to  rhythmic, jerky motor movements.  PD is classified as a progressive and degenerative neurological disease because from onset, the symptoms of PD continually degenerate making life increasingly harder for the patient.  There is no cure for this disease, but there are some treatments (mainly L-dopa) that have been shown to offer some improvement of symptoms.  Growth factors, specifically proangiogenic factors like FGF-2, have been shown to induce neural proliferation and possibly differentiation.  Fibroblast growth factors play a major role in the development of the nervous and vascular systems, and is vital in the brain's ability to make new cells after traumatic brain injury.  In previous studies it was shown that FGF-2 can increase the production of new brain cells and can protect existing neurons from degeneration. Since FGF-2 plays a critical role in regenerating neurons after brain injury, it is possible that FGF could have similar neuroprotective properties in PD models.  We hypothesize the FGF-2 will induce neuroprotection of SH-SY5Y cells following Camptothecin toxicity and that this protection will be evident in a dose dependent manner.  To test our hypothesis, we have induced Camptothecin toxicity to mimic how neurons are degenerated in PD.  Results after the application of FGF-2 will show whether this important growth factor is able to rescue neuronal cells from death in the model of PD.

Koval, Kristen: The Effects of Psychological Disorders on the Severity of Punishment for Mentally Ill Criminals [(3:00) (3A) (ASC-212)] Previous studies have shown that people have stigmatizing perceptions about the mentally ill, especially those who are diagnosed with schizophrenia and depression. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether or not the presence of a psychological disorder in a criminal plays a role in the public's judgment toward criminal sentencing. As a between-subjects design, participants read a paragraph about a criminal who has been diagnosed with one of six disorders: schizophrenia, multiple personality disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, or control (no disorder). The researcher hypothesizes that participants will believe people with mental disorders should receive lighter sentences and be treated in an institution rather than the criminal justice system.

Krupinski, Cathern: The Role of Amyloid-Beta in Alzheimer's Disease and the Effects of Antioxidants on Associated Oxidative Stress [(1:00) (P22)] Strong evidence implicates oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid β(Aβ), the major component of senile plaques found in the brains of AD patients, has been implicated in both neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress mechanisms. Disturbances in the normal redox state, associated with oxidative stress, can be toxic to neurons through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell. The pathological diagnosis of AD tends to be congruous with the quantity of Aβ in the brain. However, the current notion of Aβ deposits as neurotoxic lesions may be called into question due to the fact that indicators of oxidative stress appear in neurons prior to Aβ deposits. Using SH-SY5Y cells, we hypothesize that rather than being initiators of disease pathogenesis, the lesions that characterize AD, senile Aβ plaques, occur consequent to oxidative stress, and, most importantly, function as a primary line of antioxidant defense. With this gained knowledge, we then hope to demonstrate that other antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), may be capable of further slowing the pathogenic process under experimental conditions. In particular, we hypothesize that we will see a decrease in oxidative damage with Aβ accumulation, indicating that Aβ serves as part of a mechanism for survival, as well as a decrease in oxidative damage with alpha-tocopherol accumulation, suggesting the antioxidant vitamin E provides neuroprotection in AD.  The idea that Aβ accumulation indicates adaptation sheds new light on the pathological expression of the disease and questions the effectiveness of current therapeutic efforts targeted toward the removal of such lesions. 

Lee, Cameron: An Investigation into Fluorine-Containing Commercially Available Products by 19F NMR [(1:00) (P13)] Fluorine-19 is the only naturally occurring isotope of fluorine and is easily observed by multinuclear NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). We have prepared a series of fluoride standards (NaF) and tested the ability of the Anasazi NMR to determine the amount of fluoride in a commercial sample. We have attempted to observe fluoride in a number of commercial samples: raisins, mouthwash, toothpaste, etc. The use of the Anasazi NMR as both a quantitative and qualitative analytical tool for 19F will be discussed.

Lewicki, Lauren: Preventing and reducing tobacco use to eliminate second-hand smoke exposure at Wheeling Jesuit University [(1:00) (P6)] There is neither a safe level of second hand smoke, nor a way to ventilate chemicals from the air, which would prevent the lasting effects on the human lungs of carcinogenic and toxic chemicals present in cigarette smoke. Therefore, by preventing and educating to reduce tobacco use on campus, Wheeling Jesuit University will be able to combat the effects of mainstream and second hand smoke. Through the use of surveys and petitions, smoking in front of campus buildings will be restricted to designated areas. Educating students by utilizing wellness programs, posters, and anti-smoking activities, will help the University to be one step closer to a smoke free environment. Smoking cessation education will be provided to help those who do use tobacco to kick the habit. After all, one breath of second hand smoke is said to contain more than 4,000 chemicals, 50 of which are carcinogenic.

Lyons, Amanda: The Benefits of a Healthy Lifestyle [(1:00) (P9)] For this experiment a single in-depth case study involving four areas will be tested to evaluate how the body responds to weight loss and increased fitness. These four areas include: the heart, lungs, body measurements, and lab values. It is expected that the participant's forced vital capacity and minute voluntary ventilation will increase. In addition, it is expected that the participant's body mass index, percent of body fat, and weight will decrease over the course over of the study.

Mahoney, Kelly: Political Corruption: Crime Takes on a New Appearance [(1:00) (P12)] The American people place trust in elected officials to be reliable representatives and to make decisions based on constituents' concerns. When officials break away from these expectations, they lose the people's trust. This is an issue of growing importance because it is often associated with a decline in public morale. The breach in trust can also incriminate the United States Government to the point where they can no longer have control over the American public. This paper examines political corruption, in particular those committed by an elected officials. Utilizing a case study of a Federal Representative charged with corruption, this paper attempts to explain political corruption by applying the theory of cost-benefit analysis. The tangible benefit of corruption would be an increase in wealth, which could include money or gifts. The abstract benefit for corruption is power or influence over others in the government. The most common reasons for committing crimes of corruption is because elected officials feel that they are in a position that is respected enough to not be associated with corruption, are powerful enough to commit corruption without a fear of being caught, and believe they are above the law, therefore, escaping criminal charges. This concept can be used to explain that the benefits of committing political corruption, for most officials, outweigh the consequences.

McElhaney, Kenneth Jacob: Social Security Reform [(3:00) (3B) (ASC-213)]  Social Security reform has been a controversial topic of discussion among political scientists for several decades. However, not all are in agreement that reform is needed, although most are. If so many believe that Social Security is badly in need of reform, why has it been so difficult to  accomplish reform? The answer to this question is complicated by the vast number of factions in the United States. Finding a retirement plan to please all of them will be nearly impossible. Based on my evaluation of the current research on social security, I believe that reform is necessary. The evidence is persuasive that the Social Security trust fun will be depleted in the not too distant future. The possible solution that will be discussed is current President George W. Bush's Social Security reform plan. I will argue that the president's plan is the best course for action. President Bush's main idea for reform is focused on the idea of personal accounts. The personal accounts system for retirement is one in which workers would pay into their own retirement plans instead of the current form of paying into the Social Security Trust. The personal accounts application is sometimes referred to as "funding with a common portfolio", which is ultimately what Bush is trying to implement.

Merryman, Lisa: The Effect of Diet and Exercise on Lung Function [(1:00) (P7)] The incidence of obesity in the United States is higher today than in any previous year. The number of people who are overweight continues to climb each year. With the rise in obesity also comes a rise in the incidence of related illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, and pulmonary disease.  The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of weight loss on lung volumes and capacities of the clinically obese. There will be three participants in this study of various body types, ages, and weights. Each participant will undergo a pulmonary function test at the start and end of the study to determine before and after lung volumes and capacities. At the beginning of the study, each person's baseline vitals, including heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and also weight will be recorded. Each participant will be asked to make healthier eating choices and try to do some type of cardio exercise at least four times per week. They will be asked to record what they eat and how much exercise they do each day. They will keep a daily log of these things as well as their weekly weight. At the end of ten weeks, another pulmonary function test will be conducted and the results will be recorded.

Michaud, Yvette: "Just" Capitalism: A Study of Centesimus Annus [(10:00)(1C)(ASC-215)] Centesimus Annus (CA) was the first papal encyclical to openly endorse capitalism. The theology of CA is taken with serious regard because it was monumental in its outward support of the "new capitalism." In order to perfect the shortcomings of the free market, John Paul II offers economic policies that would ensure that the dignity of the human person is cherished and justice is maintained. However, the suggested economic policies relating to private property, Lesser Developed Countries, and trade unions, are ambiguous and can be easily misinterpreted in ways that are controversial and even contradictory to other aspects of the encyclical and teachings of the Catholic Church. This study of CA will evaluate the aforementioned economic policies in order to show that they have implications, which can be deemed contrary to what is just, given the nature of the human person and, therefore, need to be reassessed.

Miller, Ramsey: The Effects of Odor on the Perception of Teaching Effectiveness [(2:40) (3A)(ASC-212)] Teaching effectiveness ratings were measured using a twelve-question survey in order to determine the effects of ambient room odor and described gender roles on evaluations.  Participants read either a stereotypical feminine, stereotypical masculine, or a stereotypical androgynous description of a professor while in a room, with either rose scent (feminine), midsummer's night scent (masculine), or no scent dispersed throughout, for a total of nine conditions (three descriptions x three scents). A significant main effect was found for the gender roles of the hypothetical professors.  Differences among individual items showed that the hypothetical feminine and androgynous professors were generally rated more positively than the hypothetical masculine professors on items such as: being a good teacher, having interpersonal skills, being warm, being preferred as a teacher, being well liked by students and other professors, and being able to receive an excellent grade from this professor.  The hypothetical masculine professor was generally rated more positively than the hypothetical feminine and androgynous professors on items such as: competency in their discipline, intellect, and the ability to gain respect from students and other professors. There was a significant interaction effect found between the gender of the participant and gender roles of the hypothetical professors.  Male participants rated both the hypothetical feminine and androgynous professors as being liked more by their colleagues than the hypothetical masculine professor, while female participants rated the hypothetical feminine professor more positively than both the hypothetical masculine and androgynous professors. Ambient room scent did not significantly have an impact on the ratings, nor interact with the gender roles of the hypothetical professors.

Moro, Marjan; Ackermann, Andy: Preliminary Data Reduction of VATT4k Images [(11:10)(2B) (ASC-213)] From November 29 to December 4, 2007, we collected data on the intra-night variability of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using the VATT4k CCD camera at the Mt. Graham International Observatory.  These data have been reduced using the "mosaic" reduction package within IRAF. Because the CCD is twice the linear size of the old VATT2k camera, a new reduction process was used.  We present the data corrected for bias level and flat fielding effects, with preliminary analysis of relative photometry with stars in the field.

Nusbaum, Rebecca: Assessing the Wheeling Community's Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Mental Health [(3:20)(3A)(ASC-212)] The Wheeling Community's attitudes toward and education about mental health were assessed in order to determine general community perceptions.  Participants were adults from Wheeling, who were categorized according to both their profession and educational level. Twenty-three questionnaire items, on which participants indicated their level of agreement, were grouped into three scales: personal experience (example: I would seek help immediately if I believed I had a mental health issue.), knowledge (example: If I had questions about a mental disorder, I would know where to find the answers.), and attitudes (example: If I knew someone had a mental health issue, I would be non-judgmental and treat him or her like anyone else.).  Results showed that community members rated personal items significantly most positively, followed by knowledge items, and then attitude items. This suggests that educational programs geared towards one's personal experiences might be most effective. This was especially true for people in the general community and business occupations. Educational level did not have an impact on responses to the questionnaire. Additionally, responses to three open-ended questions showed that they believed that the three most important mental health problems in society were Drug/Alcohol Addictions (24), Depression (24), and Bipolar Disorder (18).  The top three sources of information for participants were the television (44), newspaper (22), and work (20). Lastly, the top three places where participants would seek mental health help were one's Primary Care Physician or Doctor (49), Family/Friends (36), and a Mental Health Clinic (26). These results will be valuable for health care and political leaders in Wheeling, as they make decisions about mental health issues in the community.

Palombi, Jessica.: Selecting the Mountaineers:  the Inclusion of Berkeley and Jefferson Counties in Forming West Virginia [(2:40)(3B)(ASC-213)] Once Virginia succeeded from the Union, plans began to split Virginia and form West Virginia.  During this era, the majority of residents in Berkeley and Jefferson Counties supported the Confederacy. Forming the new state would prove to be a difficult task as the boundaries were continuously scrutinized.  The counties of the new state would possess clashing differences, yet strategy still called for their inclusion in the formation of West Virginia.  Berkeley and Jefferson counties exemplified this divisional sentiment but mostly supported the Confederacy; yet, these counties were still arbitrarily added to the new state of West Virginia because of economic, militaristic, and political reasons.

Proto, Jonathon; Gannett, Peter and Vongsutilers, Vorasit: The Relation of Abasic Site Formation to Aryl Hydrazine Carcinogenesis [(1:00) (P26)] Found in many pharmaceutical drugs, industrial chemicals, and especially in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, aryl hydrazines and related compounds are known to be carcinogenic. Upon metabolism, electrophilic arenediazonium ions are produced. This species can react with nucleophilic atoms of purines, leading to the formation of 8-arylpurine adducts. The C-8 modification can weaken the N-glycosyl bond, during or subsequent to addition, and may result in an increase in the rate of hydrolysis and the cleavage of the base. Although abasic sites can be repaired, chemical modification of the DNA may cause damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair system, eventually leading to carcinogenesis. In this study, the role of abasic site formation in aryl hydrazine carcinogenesis was investigated by incubating four model arenediazonium salts with either calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) or salmon testes DNA (stDNA) and assessing DNA damage in vitro. Following incubation, abasic site formation was determined by HPLC analysis of the supernatant of the C8-modified bases. Additionally, treated stDNA was used to measure the order of depurination via an ELISA-like AP site assay. Preliminary HPLC analysis detected modified bases in the supernatant of ctDNA treated with some, but not all, model compounds. HPLC analysis of the DNA hydrosylate, however, demonstrated adduct formation. Results are still forthcoming in regards to the AP site assay. Current data suggests that the majority of the C8-arylpurine adduct does not undergo depurination.

Reed, Joshua.: Reverse Engineering the Communication with the PASCO Hardware Interface [(11:30)(2B)(ASC-213)] This project presents preliminary results of reverse engineering that the PASCO hardware interface used in the physics laboratory.  By intercepting the communication between the proprietary Science Workshop software and the interface, it was possible to write non-proprietary code in Python that allowed communication with both analog and digital instruments.  This frees the PASCO hardware interface from its limitations to being run by software in a Windows environment and allows the collection and analysis of data to be done in a Linux environment as well.

Robertson, Chevon: Determining the Effectiveness of Pheromone and Visual Cues in Aggregation of the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle [(3:00)(3C)(ASC-215)] Asian lady beetles were imported for biological pest control purposes, but they are outcompeting native lady beetles and they are nuisance pests to homeowners when aggregating at certain houses to overwinter. Researchers are unsure if aggregation is due to an emitted pheromone, visual cues, or both. This study tested a synthetic pheromone and visual cues effectiveness in Asian lady beetle aggregation. A correlation may provide ways to prevent them from infesting homes. A laboratory study tested whether the beetles were attracted more to a synthetic pheromone (Backyard Gardener EAU de Ladybug), a plastic lady beetle, a live lady beetle with the pheromone, or a crushed lady beetle. The study also tested several illuminated/non-illuminated colors to see which attracted more beetles before and after pheromone addition. A field study tested sticky pad traps with and without the pheromone in attracting lady beetles around different colored houses and surroundings. Pending further analysis, the data showed these beetles were attracted more to the live lady beetle with the pheromone and to illuminated white, yellow, beige, green, and gray colors with and without the pheromone. Traps near a white colored house attracted more, and sticky pads with the pheromone attracted more beetles at all tested locations. This suggests lady beetles aggregate based on pheromone and visual cues, but the pheromone may be an extra incentive for aggregating at certain houses. The data suggests homeowners can take preventive infestation measures by using the synthetic pheromone and by being aware of how their house coloration contrasts with the surrounding environment.

Rossetti, Cody.: Crayfishes of the Allegheny Mountains of Western Maryland: Conservation and Natural History [(1:00) (P19)] Maryland's crayfish fauna has not received much attention in recent years. Invasive crayfishes have been identified in Maryland waterways, and determining the true extent and distribution of invasive species and documenting native species distributions prior to their arrival is of utmost conservation concern. Though invasive species have been identified in central and eastern Maryland's waterways, western Maryland remained poorly understood. Seven species were identified in western Maryland. A survey found Orconectes obscurus, Cambarus dubius, Cambarus  bartonii and potentially undescribed Cambarid species are native to the region. Introduced species include Orconectes virilis, Procambarus acutus and Cambarus thomai. Amongst natives, O. obscurus is widely distributed throughout both Atlantic Slope and Ohio River basins. Cambarus sp. occurs in the Ohio River basin and is replaced in the Atlantic Slope with its ecological equivalent C. bartonii. Cambarus dubius is distributed throughout the Ohio River basin, with disjunct populations occurring in Atlantic slope sub-basins. Introduced species occurred most frequently in areas of anthropogenic activity, particularly Deep Creek Lake. Both O. virilis and P. acutus populations were isolated to impoundments. Cambarus thomais presence in Maryland was first documented through this study, and represents one of the first documented situations globally of a primary burrowing crayfish occurring outside its native range. Major conservation concerns to the region's native crayfish fauna include the potential spread of invasive species from impoundments, development in response to tourism, and land use practices.

Schmitt, Justin; Koval, Kristen; Miller, Ramsey: The Effect of Grapefruit Scent on Cognition [(1:00) (P3)] The effects of grapefruit scent on cognition was examined in a 2x2 within-subjects design.  Nine participants completed two conditions: scent/cognition and no-scent/cognition. They were then asked to complete the NASA-TLX (to assess workload) and the Profile of Mood States (to assess mood). Physical demand was reported significantly lower during the grapefruit and cognition condition (M = 19.44, SD = 20.15). There was also a main effect found for the composite visual scores on the Impact test.  t (8) = -2.71, p = .026.  Scores were significantly higher during the grapefruit condition (M = 87.00, SD = 5.22) than during the control condition (M = 75.33, SD = 12.02). The final main effect was found for the composite reaction time on the Impact test.  t (8) = 2.92, p = 019.  The scores were significantly lower during the grapefruit condition (M = .49, SD = .05) than in the control condition (M = .55, SD  = .06). These results indicate the scent of grapefruit has enhancing effects on cognitive performance.

Smith, Marissa: A Critique of Libertarian Justice [(11:30)(ASC 212)(2A)] This paper explains the libertarian conceptions of metanormative and normative justice in relation to personal flourishing and the minimal state.  The libertarian notion of charity is also discussed in light of both metanormative and normative justice and is contrasted with a Kantian understanding of charity.  Moreover, the paper elaborates on Michael Nozick's entitlement theory and its influence on the economic facets of libertarian justice while contrasting it to the Rawlsian notion of distributive social justice.  A critique of the libertarian conceptions of justice is offered in that the minimal state is too removed to provide justice in certain situations.  Also critiqued is the libertarion notion of charity. Moreover, as normative justice is highly individualized and must be practiced in a post-modern age, it is highly predisposed to moral relativism and is, therefore, flawed. Ultimately, libertarian justice is critiqued as utopian.  This paper, however, considers if perhaps a comprehensive justice system is inherently utopian when put into effect in an inherently sinful world.

Snodgrass, Tonya N.: Exposure of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelia to Unregulated PKC-α and its Effects on Tight Junction Permeability and Polyp-like Foci Formation [(1:00) (P21)] It is generally accepted that unregulated protein kinases play key roles in several types of cancers; however the mechanism(s) by which they act is not yet known. Protein Kinase C (PKC) has been investigated because it is the only known biological target of tumor-promoting phorbol esters, which activate PKC by substituting for its natural activator. Following activation, PKC is degraded in a process known as down regulation.  Renal epithelial cells have been shown to exhibit poly-like formations similar to precancerous lesions when grown in the presence of the phorbol ester 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Immunoblots of these cells showed an absence of full-length PKC, but an abundance of a down-regulated PKC fragment. This fragment retained full catalytic activity, but lacked the regulatory subunit. We hypothesize that chronic exposure of cells to phorbol esters results in a steady-state accumulation of a catalytically active but unregulated protein kinase.  We tested our hypothesis by creating an inducible clone of the canine renal epithelial cell line MDCK that expresses the catalytic fragment of PKC when exposed to doxycycline. Stable clones containing the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of PKC were grown in the presence or absence of 1 mM doxycycline. Immunoblot analysis revealed the expression of the catalytic fragment only in the presence of doxycycline. We are in the process of determining whether these clones exhibit polyp-like formations in a doxycycline-dependent fashion. The results will indicate whether the mere presence of the catalytic fragment of PKC is sufficient to induce polyp-like formation in renal epithelial cells.

Starkey, Cassandra; Kacmarik, Katie; Francis, Amanda: The Effect of Statin drugs on TNF-α-induced expression of VCAM and IL-8 in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells [(1:00) (P23)] Inflammation is the tissue's response mechanism against injury and infection.  It has been suggested that atherosclerosis, which is the build up of plaque in vascular walls, can be caused by chronic inflammation.  Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a multifunctional cytokine that is present at the site of inflammation and can be involved in the signaling cascades for the production of additional inflammatory cytokines, such as VCAM and IL-8.  Statins, which are drugs used to treat cardiovascular disease, are hypothesized to be beneficial in the reduction of inflammation.  To test this hypothesis, aortic cells from a human male were treated with either 50 ng/ìL of TNF-α or 10 µM of the statin drug, lovastatin, at various time periods.  Additional co-treatments were also performed with both TNF-α and lovastatin.  After treatment, the cells were lysed and mRNA was purified and used in RT-qPCR analysis.  The results showed that treatment of TNF-á caused an upregulation of VCAM and IL-8 mRNA while lovastatin exposure resulted in a down-regulation of VCAM and IL-8 mRNA.  When the cells were co-treated with both lovastatin and TNF-α, there was no significant difference in the production of VCAM and IL-8 mRNA compared to TNF- α; alone, indicating that lovastatin could not reverse the effects of TNF-α.  While these results show that lovastatin did not reduce inflammation in this model, additional studies are being conducted to examine the affects of statin drugs on other inflammatory pathways.

Stottlemyer, Shawn: The Road to Virtuous Justice is Paved With Freedom: Murray Newton Rothbard [(11:10) (2A) (ASC-212)] Murray Rothbard contends that humans must be free if there is to be justice and virtue. Given the nature of man and his relation to reality it is most proper for man to be free of subjection, coercion, and force in his movement towards virtue.  Virtuous and just behavior is determined in the conjunction of the objective standards of truth and morality in Natural Law and the ethical actions of individual human persons. The theory of Anarcho-Capitalism as espoused by Rothbard holds that humans cannot act virtuously if not given the opportunity to act basely. Humans cannot act justly if they are not free to apprehend what is just and unjust.  There is no freedom to choose what is just and virtuous, but there is no possibility to be just and virtuous if there is no freedom to choose to be so.

Twigg, Lauren Marie: Lost in the 20th Century: Welfare's Disastrous Effect on the American Family [(10:40) (1C) (ASC-215)] A virtuous society, that is a just society, begins with strong family units at its core. This presentation will consider how intrusive government social welfare programs have de-constructed the American family unit throughout most of the twentieth century. The family was once the primary institution in society, while the extended family, neighbors, the church or other religious groups, and the local government functioned in a tightly knit social order in which responsibility and interdependence were vital. As the federal government increased its presence in American social life, the family and the virtues it naturally instilled were lost. If the family unit is to return as a force in society, the federal government must emphasize the indispensability of the family, rather than implementing programs to replace it. Only when families regain control of their natural responsibilities can the government remove the destructive safety net that has replaced virtuous family ties. This can only be achieved through a revitalization of community and limited government.

Venci, Brittany: Coal Slurry Reduction to Methane by Archaea [(1:00) (P15)] The 110,770,307,742 gallons of coal slurry known to be impounded in West Virginia have caused multiple environmental and public health problems.  One possible solution is reduction of coal slurry to methane via anaerobic extremophiles in the domain Archaea, formerly known as ancient bacteria.  These organisms often form a consortium with each organism playing a valuable role in the process.  We are testing the hypothesis that if there is measurable methane production from coal slurry then there are functionally active Archaea present in coal slurry because of the remaining carbon energy.  We obtained four different samples of coal slurry from impoundments throughout Appalachia.  We are culturing Archaea to determine if they are capable of slurry reduction.  We are also inoculating with several different lineages of Archaea from deep wells, anaerobic sewage digesters, and commercially available sources.  We will present preliminary results including the amount of methane produced from coal slurry under laboratory conditions and with cultures from various sources.  The outcome of this research is to determine the potential for bioremediation of one of Appalachia's largest contaminants.

Withrow, Meghan: Caffeine Effects on Pulmonary Function [(1:00) (P5)] This project requires three sets of Pulmonary Function Tests using or withholding caffeine at varied intervals to see how it effects the actual lung volumes recorded in the tests. The tests will be held withholding caffeine for 48 hours, 24 hours, and then consuming caffeine immediately before testing.  If the hypothesis is proven correct, there will be good reason to have stricter rules to follow before the beginning of a Pulmonary Function Test. If it is proven wrong, the idea of withholding caffeine before Pulmonary Function Tests will be less supported as a requirement because there will be no evident correspondence between caffeine and the lung volumes recorded in these tests.

Wright, Timothy J., Munhall, Kate.: Promoting Effective Instructional Strategies and Classroom Practices: The Implications of Recent National Commission Reports for Future Teacher Preparation [(1:00) (P4)] "Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8" and "NASA's Elementary and Secondary Education Program: Review and Critique" are two reports published by Federal agencies that agree that coherent pedagogical planning are critical to students' understanding of STEM related topics. This study compares the recommendations in these reports to inform the WJU K-12 teacher preparation program of these advised STEM education strategies.  The two reports differ in their approach. Taking Science to School published by the National Academy of Sciences focuses primarily on cognitive and developmental issues for science learning from grades K-8.  Whereas Review and Critique produced by the National Research Council focuses more on applied teaching strategies.  Also, the latter focuses on activities that inspire and engage students' interests, while Taking Science to School focuses on core ideas that are central to the growth of STEM-related understanding.  One key difference in the perspectives of these two reports is that the Review and Critique emphasizes student interest and motivation as a primary goal while Taking Science to School gave greatest emphasis to instructional strategies for teaching core concepts. These recommendations suggest best practices on a basic and applied research level for Wheeling Jesuit University 's Teacher Prep Program. In conclusion, this literature review provides guidelines for the Teacher Prep Program to consider in regard to cognitive and developmental issues, while still inspiring and engaging students' interest in the core ideas that are central to the growth of STEM-related understanding.

Yakey, Samantha: An Investigation into Phosphorous-Containing Commercially Available Products by 31P NMR  [(1:00) (P14)] Phosphorous 31 is the only naturally occurring isotope of phosphorous and is easily observed by multinuclear NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). We have prepared a series of phosphorous standards (H3PO4)  and tested the ability of the Anasazi NMR to determine the amount of phosphorous in a commercial sample.  We have attempted to observe phosphorous in a number of commercial samples: cola, liquid fertilizer, toothpaste, etc. The use of the Anasazi NMR as both a quantitative and qualitative analytical tool for the presence of 31P will be discussed.

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