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Dr. Bryan Raudenbush
Email: raudenbc@wju.edu
Phone: 304-243-2330

2011 Abstracts

Explanation of the coding system:
The following abstracts are presented in alphabetical order by first author. For the oral presentations, the information in the brackets includes the time of the presentation (e.g. 2:20), the session (e.g. 2C), and the location of the session (e.g. ASC-212). For poster sessions, the bracketed information includes the time of the session (e.g. 12:45) and the poster board number where the poster is to be found (e.g. P4).

Amos, Marlee E.: [10:45-11:00] [1A] [ASC-212] Spies, Lies and Allies: Gender Roles Portrayed and Fought Against by Female Spies During World War II. In my paper I will explore the gender rolesportrayed and fought against by female spies during World War II. I willfocus on female agents serving in the American, Office of StrategicServices (OSS) and British Special Operations Executive (SOE). I willevaluate the roles that female agents played in their espionageorganizations, and effectiveness of their work. I will also investigatethe lives of female spies such as: Virginia Hall, Julia Childs, and AmyElizabeth Thorpe aka "Betty Pack" to gain a deeper understanding of thetypes of missions female agents were assigned and to what extend thesemissions were performed. Finally, I will investigate the undercoveroperations that were carried out by espionage organizations and how thisinformation was invaluable to the Allies. The sources that I will focus onare original documents, pictures and journal entries of undercover spies.I will also study secondary source material focused in on the work offemale OSS and SOE members during World War II.

Babjak, Mike: [11:00] [P1] How effective is functional clothing at regulating body temperature and enhancing performance in exercise and sports? This study is aimed at determining the effectiveness of body temperature regulation and the enhancement of performance that functional clothing is thought to provide. In this research, the participants will engage in normal practice routines while wearing different types of clothing to gauge which is most beneficial in regulating body temperature and boosting performance. Each participant will have four body temperature readings taken, one before and after practice and two during practice to measure changes in body temperature. In addition, the clothes will be weighed before and after the practices to check for moisture retention. The data will be collected from each of the trials and then conclusions will be drawn as to whether or not functional clothing is effective at regulating body temperature. This research can be useful in proving whether or not this type of clothing a valuable resource for insulation as not only a single layer, but in a multi-layered insulation system. In addition, it can help prove whether or not these clothes are worth the large investments that many people place in them.

Basham, Michaela: [2:45-3:00] [2C] [ASC-215] 'Hierophant:' an Original Story in Partial Completion of the Creative Portfolio. I will be presenting a selection from a portfolio of creative writing. The portfolio of short narratives includes two original fiction short stories, one fiction parody short story, one nonfiction short story, and an excerpt from a full length novel I am in the process of completing. The works in my portfolio will showcase my creative talent and writing styles which I have been developing over the past five years as part of my Independent Major in Creative Writing. I will speak briefly about each piece, where the inspiration came from, what goals I was striving for when composing them, and what I learned from writing them. Then, I will read one of the fiction short stories before taking questions. The fictional short story I will be reading is titled "Hierophant" and is a first person account of a girl who is seeing a psychiatrist while serving time in prison for murdering a man. I wrote this story in the fall of 2007 for Professor Whitehead's Creative Writing: Narrative Workshop class (PWR 323-01) and have returned to it over the years to tweak and attempt to perfect the story. I believe it is currently the best of the stories in my portfolio. It may perhaps be prudent to warn that this story has some very slight graphic violence and may not be appreciated by all audiences. Children should not attend this reading.

Beck, Rory Z.; Coffield, Crihfield, Lamyaithong: [11:00] [P1] Electrochemical Synthesis and Investigation of Novel Metal Dithiocarbamate Complexes. Research into the production of high fidelity lunar regolith stimulant is currently being pursued at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center and NASA Glenn Research Center Previous work on lunar regolith simulants focused on bulk properties. Current work has suggested that minor constituents may have a disproportionate affect on the properties of the regolith. Minor components include iron nanoparticles and iron sulfides (specifically troilite). The WJU chemistry department is currently collaborating with Dr. Aloysius Hepp at NASA Glenn Research Center. Dr. Hepp is using dithiocarbamate compounds produced and characterized at WJU as precursors to iron sulfide components of lunar regolith simulants. Up until now, the dithiocarbamate compounds investigated at WJU have been limited to readily available oxidation states of the metals. This multi-year project involves the investigation of novel oxidation states of metal dithiocarbamate complexes, particularly iron, cobalt, and nickel complexes. Some of these complexes, including the iron(II) complex, are not stable in air. Work is underway to develop synthesis and purification techniques for working with these air-sensitive compounds. The thermal decomposition of electrochemically synthesized compounds will be investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and thermogravimetric analysis/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA/FTIR).

Bennet, Abbey: [1:00] [P2] The Effects of Diabetes on the Incidence of Prostate Cancer. Diabetic patients have been reported to have a lower incidence of prostate cancer following transrectal ultrasound-guided needle (TRUS) biopsies, which only sample a small portion of the prostate gland. Because transperineal template-guided mapping biopsies (TTMB) sample the prostate gland in its entirety in three dimensions, we evaluated whether diabetes is protective against the diagnosis of prostate cancer. 540 patients having undergone a TTMB as a diagnostic procedure for prostate cancer were evaluated based upon diabetes, cancer presence and significance. In this study, we report the non-significance of diabetes in the diagnosis, invasiveness or distribution of prostate cancer. 476 TTMB patients were not diabetic and 64 patients were diabetic. 268 patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 272 without. 36 patients were diagnosed with clinically insignificant prostate cancer. Cancer was confirmed in 54.7% of diabetic patients and 52.7% of non-diabetic patients (p=0.841). There was no significant difference in Gleason Score distribution between diabetic and non-diabetic patients (p=0.646). Diabetes was not predictive for either a prostate cancer diagnosis (p=0.841) or for prostate cancer volume (p=0.837) in univariate analyses. Diabetes exhibited a non-significant value (p=0.738) in the prediction of Gleason Score in a univariate analysis. Based upon our evaluation with statistical analysis, we conclude that when the prostate gland is sampled in its entirety, as per TTMB, diabetes does not impact prostate cancer diagnosis, tumor volume, or aggressiveness. Therefore, diabetes should not influence the decision to proceed with a TTMB for proper diagnosis.

Birchard, Zackary: [10:00-10:15] [1C] [ASC-215] The Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination on Water under Simulated Underground Conditions. The issue of coal slurry undergroundinjection polluting rural water supplies in West Virginia has resulted inthe "Alternative Coal Slurry Disposal Act," (HB 2850 and SB 248). Thepurpose of this study is to measure heavy metal concentrations in theliquid portion of coal slurry under simulated underground conditions. Theconditions include simulated mean annual temperature and an atmospheredevoid of oxygen. I will look at the dissolved metal concentrations in thewater after coal slurry injectate has been added to the water, before andafter oxygen is removed from the atmosphere (carried out in a NitrogenPressure-chamber) to see what becomes dissolved in it under pressure and without oxygen (representation of how water moves through the ground).Heavy metal concentrations will be measured in the aerobic versusanaerobic chambers, and at room temperature versus 4 degrees Celsius. Thetime of the sampling for each of these separate conditions will be 1 day,1 week and 1 month (28 days). Planned analysis is a three way generallinear model analysis of variance for the factors of oxygen, temperatureand time. Each test will be repeated six times to ensure sufficientsample size for statistical analysis, and to have enough data to determine if a time factor trend exists.

Blankenship, Talia: [1:00] [P2] Delivery of Fusion Protein into cells using the cell-permeable peptide Antennapedia. Antennapedia (TAT) is a small polypeptide that functions as a "Trojan horse", enabling large molecules to cross the cell membrane. It has previously been shown that a TAT-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein can be taken up by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). This work was expanded by producing a larger fusion protein consisting of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), TAT, GFP and the actin-binding carboxyl terminal domain of AFAP-110 (C-term). The fusion protein vector was transformed into the protease-deficient BL-21 strain of E. coli and induced to over-express the fusion protein. The protein was purified by absorption onto glutathione sepharose and then eluted from the sepharose in Tris buffer containing 10 mM glutathione. Gel electrophoresis and Immunoblot analysis, using antibodies directed against GST, GFP, or AFAP-110, of transformed cell lysates confirmed the presence of an 83-kD protein, the size of this specific fusion protein, containing GFP, GST, and AFAP-110. Therefore, a full length protein was transformed, induced, present in the lysate, and purified. Large quantities of purified fusion protein were prepared and work is underway to optimize the conditions so there will be minimal degradation. The protein will be assessed for its ability to be taken up by HUVEC and endothelial cell lines and to bind to actin filaments.

Bodo, Aubrey L.: [11:00] [P1] Would it be Beneficial to Nuclear Medicine if an Alternative Molecular Imaging Agent were created to Succeed 111 In Capromab Pendetide? A major question asked by people who have cancer is whether that cancer has metastasized. Prostate cancer is common in men over 65 years of age and metastasis is the process in which cancerous cells move or spread from the original site to one or more sites. Cancer cells commonly travel through the lymph system or bloodstream. Tumor-linked antigens expressed on malignant cells can lead to diagnostic studies to detect primary and recurrent prostate cancer. ProstaScint is a monoclonal antibody (mouse antibody) technique used in nuclear medicine to scan patients who have newly diagnosed prostate cancer. ProstaScint has a history of increased false negatives and false positives, which does not produce sufficient diagnostic accuracy. Imaging with ProstaScint can also be mechanically demanding, and extensive training and experience is needed to diagnose prostate cancer using ProstaScint images. The management of contained carcinoma of the prostate is dependent upon many factors: appropriate staging and grading of the tumor is necessary for treatment planning. Imaging modalities such as MRI or CT have shown to be of little use since the tests only show enlarged lymph nodes after they are of one-third inch in size nor do these scans determine if the nodes are enlarged from cancer. PSMA (Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen) is articulated in destructive prostate cancer tissue, hence there is a need for an imaging agent that is intended for the PSMA target. Innovative radioimmunoscintigraphy involving a new imaging modality is emerging as a diagnostic means of detecting prostate cancer noninvasively. This research investigates how this can be used to diagnose prostate cancer.

Budney, Brian: [10:30-10:45] [1C] [ASC-215] Examination and Comparison of Tritium Glucose Analogs. Tritium glucose has been used to study metabolism in type two diabetes mellitus patients. Glucose is the primary energy supplier to the body. When glucose is combined with tritium, a prepared radioactive pharmaceutical, we can study glucose metabolism under certain metabolic conditions such as hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. This six carbon molecule can define how the body metabolizes energy and can demonstrate disease progress through pharmaceutical management. In recent studies, glucose has been "tagged" with tritium on the third carbon and can be studied for hepatic glucose production in type two diabetes mellitus patients. My research will focus on tritium glucose in positions 1, 2, 4, and 6 that has been examined in rat populations but lack human trials for further investigation. Information gathered from six reliable sources have examined why tritium glucose in the third position is the reliable choice for testing in human patients. Future research of tritium glucose at hospital institutions can help us gain a better understanding of the differences between the analog positions.

Burkhart, Brittany: [1:00] [P2] Transfection of SVEC4-10 Cell Line with sh-RNA to Study the Effects of AFAP Knockdown on Angiogenesis. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels through endothelial cell proliferation, stem cell recruitment, and morphogenesis, is important for embryonic development, wound healing, ulcer healing, cardiovascular disease pathology, and tissue regeneration. When inhibited, complications such as blindness and tumoral growth are restricted and/or prevented. Studies suggest that angiogenesis requires the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and Src to occur. The actin filament associated protein of 110 Kd molecular weight (AFAP) is an adaptor protein expressed in endothelial cells and vascular tissues that links PKC and Src to actin filaments. These linkages and other downstream mechanisms result in the formation of adhesion structures, allowing cells to cross tissue barriers and associate together to form blood vessels. The goal of this research is to study the effects of AFAP knockdown on cell migration and tubular formation in the cell line SVEC 4-10, a mouse endothelial line and model for angiogenesis. SVEC cells will be transfected with a red fluorescent protein-tagged (RFP) short hairpin RNA (SH-RNA) vector against AFAP. All successfully transfected cells express the RFP tag under the appropriate wavelength of a fluorescent microscope. Immunoblotting for AFAP will be conducted to confirm a decrease in AFAP expression. The ability of the transfected cells to migrate and form tubular structures will also be examined using a migration assay and tube formation assay. The results of these methods will be compared to the results of mock transfected and untransfected cells to confirm the necessity of AFAP in cellular migration and tube formation.

Burkhart, Chasidy: [1:00] [P2] Being Prepared for When Zombies Attack. If zombies were to attack, would you be prepared? The goal of our research is to help people be more equipped in case of a zombie apocalypse. Our research deals with the aspects of business and athletic training in the case of being prepared for when zombies attack. We will first look at the business aspect, where you will need to stock up on supplies for when zombies attack. Supplies needed would include weapons, food, medical equipment, tool kits, hiking boots, etc. In order to pay for supplies, we will also look at how to budget your money to stock up on the needed items. For athletic training, we will focus on the types of injuries that will most likely occur in a zombie attack and how they could be treated. Some common injuries would include sprained ankles, lacerations, punctures, and abrasions. We hope our research will aid people for when a zombie attack occurs.

Burkhart, Chasidy: [11:00] [P1] How Would Having a Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC) on Staff at Secondary Schools Affect Athletes and the Injuries that Occur? This study will explore the effects of having an athletic trainer on staff at secondary schools and the benefits the student-athletes that become injured will receive. I plan to show the relationship of the socioeconomic status of high schools in the Ohio Valley and the lack of athletic health care. This research will ask participants to read all of the given information and then consent to it by filling out a questionnaire form. Data will be collected from the questionnaires, compared extensively, and computed to show the results of the research. This will be the first time any research has tried to link athletic trainers, student-athletes, and the socioeconomic status of high schools in the Ohio Valley. With structured research, the results of this research will be referenced for future interest in this subject and encouragement for further exploration of the topic.

Buskirk, Bridget: [11:00] [P1] How Effective is the use of Kinesio Tape on an Injured Athlete? The ultimate goal of this research study is to find out how effective the use of Kinesio tape is. The tape has just started to become popular in the United States and more and more people, mainly athletes, are starting to use it. However; whether or not the tape really works is up for debate. By gathering a group of athletes who are willing to give the tape a try, this study can prove that the tape can correct muscle function by strengthening weak ones, reduce swelling and improve circulation of the blood and lymph by eliminating tissue fluid or decreasing pain through neurological suppression. Also the study can prove that the tape can be used to reposition subluxed joints by relieving abnormal muscle tension and improve proprioception.

Capiola, August: [1:00] [P2] Effects of Soccer Ball Heading on Scent Identification and Olfactory Functioning. Past research shows that head injury decreases the ability to identify scent and olfactory functioning. The present study examined the effects of soccer ball heading frequency, soccer ball heading intensity, past concussions, and dizziness post-soccer ball heading had on scent identification from pre to post season. Men and women soccer teamswere asked to identify scents from scratch and sniff booklets (Brief Smell Identification Test and Provista Memory Test) before and after their soccer seasons. Athletes were chosen for further study if they showed a decrease in scent identification performance from pre- to post-season. The correlation for scent ability and various actions were as follows: r = .75 for heading frequency, r = .47 for heading intensity, r = .80 for concussion, and r = .58 for dizziness. The data were subjected to a multiple regression analysis and it was found that the variables of heading frequency, heading intensity, concussion, and dizziness accounted for 75% of the decreased ability to identify scent and olfactory function in these athletes is accounted for by behaviors related to soccer ball heading. Future research may help to explain which particular head injuries and related actions would effect scent identification and olfactory functioning the most in an attempt to uncover solutions to avoiding these particular circumstances.

Capiola, August: [1:00] [P2] Physiological Responses of Food Neophobics and Food
Neophilics to Food and Non-Food Stimuli. Individual differences in human food neophobia (the
reluctance to try novel foods) and food neophilia (the overt willingness to try novel foods) influence the evaluation of tastes and odors, as well as the sampling of such stimuli. Past research also notes an association of food neophobia to PTC sensitivity, body weight, and cephalic phase salivary response. The present study assessed physiological reactions of
food neophobics and neophilics to pictures of food and non-food stimuli. Stimuli pictures were presented in random order on a computer screen for a period of 5 minutes. No significant differences were found between the groups in relation to non-food stimuli. However, pulse, GSR, and respirations were significantly increased in food neophobics when presented pictures of food stimuli. Thus, further evidence is provided to support a physiological component at least partially responsible for differences noted between neophobics and neophilics in sensitivity, psychophysical ratings, and "willingness to try" personality. Such a component may also lead to differences in weight, nutrition, and overall health.

Carter, Adam: [11:00] [P1] The need for a greater use of the Y-balance test to help decrease lower leg injuries in athletes who suffer from chronic lower extremity injuries. This study will examine the need for a greater and wider spread use of the Y-balance test. It is a fairly new but very effective tool that can be used more effectively I am proposing that athletes that take the test prior to competition and are indentified to be at risk for injury then they should be put on a rehabilitation plan. I plan to do this by using athletes at Wheeling Jesuit University that have suffered from a chronic lower extremity injury and test them on the Y-balance tool. I will have two groups one being a control group and one group participating in rehabilitation exercises. After a post test the data will be analyzed and determined if the rehabilitation worked in decreasing the risk for injury. This is the first time anyone has tried to determine if a rehabilitation plan would be effective in decreasing the risk for an athlete.

Coconougher, Chelsea D.: [1:00] [P2] Senior Pasture Horses and the Change in Lactobacillus acidophilus Populations: Based on a Diet of All Stock Feed Compared with a Diet of Triple Crown Senior Feed. Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), belongs to the genus Lactobacillus. They are anaerobic, lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB), the most widely used bacteria in direct-fed microbial (DFM) preparations, and show promise toward enhancing digestive health in many species. For this study Triple Crown Senior feed, containing DFM L. acidophilus, will be compared with an All Stock Feed, containing no DFM, and normally used for feeding. Two senior pasture horses will be tested by collecting fecal samples once a week for eight weeks. The feeds will be every two weeks with one week of mixed feed between changes in feeds. The project will study the L. acidophilus populations using fecal plating procedures and examining the count of L. acidophilus and the consistency of the feces. The hay will remain constant in order to prevent an abrupt change in the diet, which could lead to colic. The pasture horses will be provided with plenty of fresh water, an infinite amount of grass and hay; as well as salt blocks in order to meet the nutritional requirements. The hypothesized results are if L. acidophilus in the Triple Crown Senior feed is found in the fecal samples in acceptable quantities this will show the feeds are effectively facilitating a benefit to the horses' immune and digestive systems. If L. acidophilus is not found in the fecal samples the feed should be tested in-depth to distinguish if the feed does not contain enough DFMs or if the feed is not beneficial.

Cooksey, Sean: [10:30-10:45] [1A] [ASC-212] The Maginot Line: The Achilles Heel of the Third Republic. France lost to Germany in the spring of 1940 not because of the German Blitzkrieg strategy, but because of France's outdated policies left over from the First World War. This is evident in both the atmosphere of France's political agenda and its military strategy. After the First World War, Europe as a whole was weary of the death, destruction, and financial burdens that come with war. As a result, France desired to be a non-aggressive nation, and so the Maginot Line was built to assure its protection in the event that it would be attacked. The results from memoirs of military leaders and a variety of historical accounts conclude that France's defensive strategy brought about its early defeat in the Second World War. Even with the support of a powerful ally in Great Britain and its vast empire, France had already set up a pattern for its own demise.

DuBroy, Kristen: [11:00] [P1] Augmented Soft Tissue Mobilization Effects on Balance. The purpose of this research is to prevent injuries that can be avoided. Injuries that are non-contact and controllable acts can be prevented. This study will utilize the Y-Balance test and Augmented Soft Tissue Mobilization (ASTYM). The research will begin by doing a baseline test using the Y-Balance test. If the athlete has an asymmetry then he or she will continue the study. The participants will be volleyball players because it is a unilateral sport and athletes participating in this sport have a good chance of having an asymmetry. Once the Y-Balance test is completed, ASTYM will be applied to the half of the lower extremity that caused the asymmetry. After this treatment is given, the Y-Balance test will be completed again. The coordinators of the research hope to find a more efficient way to get athletes out of the injury prone zone by using a quicker method in ASTYM.

Goldsberry, Mike: [11:00] [P1] Does the Neopuff provide increased patient safety and effective tidal volume delivery to neonates when compared to standard self-inflating and flow-inflating neonate resuscitation bags? Does the Neopuff provide increased patient safety and effective tidal volume delivery to neonates when compared to standard self-inflating and flow-inflating neonate resuscitation bags? This study will be conducted to determine which of the three neonatal resuscitation devices, if any, is the better product to use for neonatal resuscitation. I plan to recruit Wheeling Jesuit University Respiratory Therapy students, Wheeling Jesuit University Nursing students, and individuals untrained in resuscitation to perform resuscitation trials using all three devices. During the one-minute long trials, I will be recording the peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) applied to the neonate mannequin by the participant, and I will also be measuring the minute ventilation administered. From the minute ventilation values and the number of breaths given in the minute trial, I will then calculate the average tidal volume delivery for each breath. For the second part of this study I will send surveys to local hospitals and some outside the area to see which neonatal resuscitators they currently use and why. I will also attempt to get answers about how much these hospitals spend annually on the resuscitators they use, and who makes the decisions for which type of neonatal resuscitator to purchase. My hope for this study is to further confirm previous research that the Neopuff is safer and more efficient than the self- and flow-inflating resuscitators. Hopefully hospitals that perform neonatal resuscitations without the Neopuff will switch to this device for future resuscitations.

Gottardi, Jodi: [1:00] [P2] Determining Antimicrobial Properties of Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, and Magnesium Oxide Against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, are two common bacteria in the normal biota. The most common strain of E. coli of threat to humans is O157:H7, which is found in food products and results in a number of cases of illnesses. S. aureus is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections and has a high pathogenicity. Another problem that exists is methicillin-resistant S. aureus, which is any strain of S. aureus that has developed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative rod and is not considered to be a normal resident of the human body. This bacterium has been classified as an opportunist, meaning it is likely to cause disease when a situation arises (i.e., an open wound) and the bacterium takes advantage of it. Although certain antibiotics have demonstrated their efficiency as a usable treatment for these nosocomial pathogens, drug resistance due to bacterial mutation has been a major warning against the excessive use of antibiotics. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown inorganic compounds commonly found in skincare products to be effective antimicrobial agents, such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and magnesium oxide. The antimicrobial effect of these three inorganics against the pathogens was observed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). After obtaining the MICs, the disc diffusion method was used to determine period zones of inhibition for each. Hence, the findings of this study may lead to developing a safer method of treating and reducing the occurrence of E. coli, S aureus, and P. aeruginosa.

Greene, Lacey: [11:00] [P1] Implementation of Positron Emission Mammography as an Adjunct Imaging Modality in Breast Cancer. Early detection and diagnosis of malignant breast lesions is vital to a patient's survival. Since the etiology of breast cancer is physiological, the mere detection of lesions is not enough for malignant diagnosis: physiological data must supplement anatomical data in order to diagnose without invasive biopsy. While much of the research today describes the implementation of current anatomical imaging modalities such as mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, it fails to provide physiologic and metabolic data specific to the pathophysiology of malignant breast lesions, thus further elucidating limitations which are already known. Positron emission mammography (PEM) is an innovative technology specifically designed to image physiologic and metabolic processes in malignant breast lesions, yet it remains an underutilized diagnostic tool. Additionally, radiologist confidence in dictation is crucial in determining malignancy, and providing radiologists with both physiological and anatomical evidence can only increase radiologist confidence. Therefore, achieving optimum patient care is a combination of the benefits of selected imaging modalities and radiologist interpretation. As a result, radiologist perception of the imaging modalities is of utmost importance. It is reasonable to focus on the implementation of the diagnostic capabilities inherent in PEM used in conjunction with the detection capacity of anatomical imaging modalities to overcome and compensate for the limitations of each. This research focuses on the benefits of utilizing PEM as a complement to anatomical imaging modalities by providing a qualitative perspective from radiologists familiar with PEM technology.

Henson, Timothy C.: [2:45-3:00] [2D] [ASC-315] The Human Computer. Every day technology advances in many areas. From computers to the Internet, society becomes more and more dependent on the new trends and devices. Yet, the computer has revolutionized the movement to continue upon an easier society with the idea of robotics. The Human computer is on the brink of expanding into the marketplace and by doing so would change the world as we know it. I examined how humans interact and the how each person learns. By programming a machine to listen and respond in an educated/social manor would create the next step in robotics. This project not only interacts with the human being but learns and searches for information. Using a cloud technology, this can be expanded to compute responses in educated ways while learning the social meanings of words, sarcasm, and the ways of a person. This project is intended to continue the movement of making a computer learn the human language and in return be able to speak it as if it was a normal person.

Houston, Kara: What Differences Exist between the Graston Technique and the Augmented Soft Tissue Mobilization and Which Technique is Superior? [1:00] [P1]This study will determine if a significant difference exists between the Graston Technique (GT) and the Augmented Soft Tissue Mobilization Technique (ASTYM). These techniques are very similar in methodology; however, to date no research has been completed to determine if one of the techniques is superior. This study will compare each group to a control group. Measurements and data will be collected and results will be compared among the groups. Based on the information collected at the completion of the study, a superior technique will be able to be determined. This is the first time research of this nature has been conducted.

Hydeman, Laura: [10:15-10:30] [1C] [ASC-215] Effect of C-peptide on Complex I Subunit Expression and Oxidative Metabolism of Glucose. In the diabetic condition, hypo- and hyperglycemia cause damage to many tissues, including the endothelial cells of the vasculature, neuronal tissues, and renal epithelial cells. Hyperglycemia induces the overproduction of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), toxic by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, by the mitochondria, triggering key metabolic pathways that contribute to tissue damage. NADH oxidoreductase (complex I), the first transmembrane complex of oxidative phosphorylation, has been found to be dysfunctional during diabetes, producing excess ROS. Recent work has shown that physiologic concentrations of C-peptide (6.6 nM) restore complex I activity in murine renal endothelial cells exposed to a high glucose (25 mM) environment. The mechanism of this restoration is unknown. Our goal is to determine if structurally and functionally relevant subunits of complex I are altered by C-peptide and whether such changes affect oxygen consumption during hyperglycemia. It is hypothesized that C-peptide works through a mechanism that will alter the expression of one of these important subunits, and that C-peptide will decrease oxidative metabolism thereby producing less reactive oxygen species. I propose to measure oxygen consumption in endothelial cells, renal epithelial and tubular cells, and neuronal cells using a commercially available kit. The results will provide a better understanding of the mechanism by which C-peptide functions, which may lead to novel therapies in the treatment of diabetes.

Hydeman, Laura; White, Brittany: [1:00] [P2] The Optical Illusions of Zombies. Optical illusions are visually perceived images that are different from the objective reality of the image. Our brain and eyes cause us to process the same image in multiple ways. Zombies can be thought of as an illusion. When someone says the word "zombie," our initial reaction is to picture a flesh-eating, rotting, reanimated corpse slowly stumbling along and eating any person in their pathway. They also flock together and act mindlessly and almost, if not completely, identically. Individuality is lost on the zombie. However, there is more to zombies than first meets the eye, for they can be looked at from another perspective, just as optical illusions can be seen from multiple perspectives. It is our proposal that the modern person can be likened to a flesh-eating zombie. The Westernization of the world, along with advances in technology, have created a human race that is unable to maintain a sense of individuality. We have become an army of modern day zombies, virtually unaware of the world which surrounds us in our day to day lives. This loss of individuality has taken over the planet, and it appears that it is here to stay.

Jack, Colin: [11:00] [P1] Studying the Thermal Decomposition Pathways of Dithiocarbamates with TGA. Researchers at NASA Glenn in Cleveland, OH have a desire to produce and to study iron sulfides. An easy way to produce iron sulfides is through the thermal decomposition of iron dithiocarbamates. Two iron dithiocarbamates that we studied consisted of iron in the +2 oxidation state, Iron(II), with two carbon monoxides (CO) bonded in the -cis conformation and varying dithiocarbamate ligands. Thermal decomposition of these iron dithiocarbamate complexes suggest that iron sulfides are produced with respect to the mass loss during the experiment. The recorded mass loss as a function of temperature also illustrates how temperature affects the iron dithiocarbamate complexes.

Kaczor, Sarah: [11:00] [P1] Does Nail Polish Effect Pulse Oximetry Saturation Level Readings? Pulse oximetry is a critical part of a respiratorytherapist's job. The pulse oximetry is used to measure a patient's oxygensaturation level to assess the need of oxygen or mechanical ventilation. Ahealthy patient's oxygen saturation should be above 95% to keep all themuscles and organs at a full-functioning level. In the hospital setting,pulse oximetry is used to check patients' oxygen saturation levels whenthey are on oxygen via nasal cannula or facemask to assess the need todiscontinue or continue the use of oxygen. In intubated patients it isused to monitor oxygen saturation levels to make sure the patient isgetting the oxygen required to prevent hypoxia. Pulse oximetry allowsquick readings without the pain and time of doing an arterial blood gas.Does nail polish affect pulse oximetry saturation level readings? Thisstudy will investigate whether nail polish has any affect on the pulseoximetry saturation reading and if so, what colors have the greatesteffect on the saturation levels. I plan on recruiting a mixed group of healthy volunteers to test the different colors of nail polish and see ifthe oxygen saturation levels vary with nail polish color. The resultscould affect how those who use the pulse oximeter deal with nail polishbefore they take an oxygen saturation reading. The results of thisresearch will be used for future reference for those in the medical field who use pulse oximetry as a means of noninvasive monitoring for thepatient's oxygenation status.

Kennedy, Katrina: [11:00] [P1] Effects of Exercise in the Classroom During Lessons on Student Performance. This study will explore the effects of exercise on students as they are in a controlled classroom setting. It will attempt toinstitute a new means of education in the classroom that will bebeneficial to the students' progressive learning. Through the means of
questionnaires, a group of teachers and their classes will be selected to participate in in-class physical activity for no longer than the length of one lesson plan throughout a day. Research will require the teachers and students to grade and participate in various objective tests, just as they would in any other classroom, respectively. The results will then be calculated, analyzed, and compared to the same objective tests used in other classrooms not participating in the study. This is the first study found that has tried to implement exercise into actual classroom lessons throughout a normal school day, but can potentially benefit many students and educators in the educational field.

Ludewig, Michael: [11:00] [P1] Effects of Pitching Restrictions to Reduce Injuries in Children. This study will examine the prevalence of elbow medial elbow injuries that are caused by stress on the elbow during adolescence. There has never been a direct correlation developed between elbow injuries in later life and throwing excessive pitches during childhood, so I will attempt to establish this. The study will be set up with an initial screening questionnaire to of both adult pitches to find out about their past pitching experiences as a child and also to the new group of children who are being examined in the study. At such a young age, little league pitcher's have a very sensitive growth plate in the elbow that is easily damaged with cumulative stress. The children will come in for a pitching session where they will be filmed and mechanical flaws can be corrected before the season starts and they will be constantly monitored throughout the season with questionnaires and game video analysis of their mechanics.

Macri, Audra: [2:30-2:45] [2D] [ASC-315] Wheeling Jesuit University Virtual Tour. This project focuses on the new Wheeling Jesuit University Virtual Tour designed by using 360 and 180 degree views of the campus, Flash® software, a fisheye lens, as well as Adobe® CS5 Software. This presentation will go over the steps that were taken to design, layout, and build the tour, as well as explain decisions and give a brief insight into plans to improve the tour in the near future. A short demonstration of the new tour will also be given.

McGoye, Mary Ellen: [2:45-3:00] [2B] [ASC-213] The Pain of Cocaine. The coca leaf has always been important to the culture of Colombia. This leaf has gone from being a spiritual component for indigenous peoples, to a medical miracle, to the source of one of the most popular narcotic substances in the world. Colombia has been supplying Western nations with coca since its colonization in 1510. This industry has always been dependent on small farmers who cultivate coca leaves and transform them into the most basic form of cocaine. Despite this dependence, Colombian farmers are still living in extreme poverty. This brings about the question: does the cocaine industry affect the economic situation of the Colombian people? During my presentation I will attempt to answer this question by introducing my research on the correlation of coca production and GDP in Colombia. My data will show that the theory of coca directly affecting the Colombian economy is outdated; there is no direct correlation between GDP and coca cultivation. I will compare my findings to those of Holmes and Piñeres who came to a very different conclusion in the 1990s. I will then go on to explain why this information is important to International Criminal Justice and Foreign Policy, primarily concerning Plan Colombia and U.S. assistance in Colombia.

Mogan, Natalie: [1:00] [P2] The Wedding Industry: Capitalism takes the Cake. Capitalism is an economic system characterized by a free market; its design makes it possible for goods and services to be privately controlled for production and consumption. Many economists throughout history have considered the Wedding Industry to be the true "recession proof" industry. This industry alone generates over $70 billion dollars a year in revenue in the United States. The wedding industry is comprised of multiple smaller enterprises, such as: wedding consultants, dress companies, dress manufacturers, various beauty suppliers, make-up artists, teeth whitening services, photographers, caterers, favors and personalized gift manufacturers, live musicians, bands, disc jockeys, spa and resorts, as well as honeymoon related services. The expensive nature of a wedding would suggest that they are only an option for wealthy people, because less people are getting married today in the United States than ever before. However, the Wedding Industry does provide countless job opportunities in all areas of the businesses that make up the industry as a whole, but does that outweigh the consequences of such great loss to a long standing traditional, cultural, and sacramental right of passage?

Mogan, Sarah; Greenwalt, Mertz: [1:00] [P2] What Constitutes Zombie-ness? - A Psycho Historical International Study. The current study surveyed students in the Laut Honors College about their perceptions of zombie imagery and what constitutes a zombie. A self-report survey was used to collect data. Frequencies of words and characteristics were compared to the classic George A. Romero zombie, zombies in contemporary media, and historical Haitian zombies. A standardized trend appeared describing the clothing, movement, drive, and language of zombies that is consistent with the classic Romero zombie.

Mogan, Sarah: [1:00] [P2] Effects of Odorant Administration on Consumer Product Selection and Expected Value. Prior research has shown the effectiveness of scent on influencing consumer purchases and perceived value of in-store products. However, there is no evidence to whether this effect can be extended to online shopping as well. Scents were matched to 3 consumer products in a slideshow of ten products. The scents included: Froot Loops, leather, and coffee. Participants were randomly placed in either the control or one of the three scent conditions and asked to rate their desire to purchase the product, their perceived quality, and tell the dollar amount they would be willing to pay for the product. Researchers discovered that there were no significant differences in participants' desire to purchase, perceived quality, and the dollar amount they were willing to pay when the scent was present. Researchers discovered that there is an obscure component about having a scent paired with products in-store that does not translate to online shopping. Still, further and future research is encouraged to gain more insight into the findings.

Morris, Bria: [11:00] [P1] Myocardial Perfusion Imaging and Cardiac CT are Two Non Invasive Scans Used In the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease Which is Better? There are many ways to evaluate Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Of thoseways, this paper will provide a detailed overview of clinical applicationsof Cardiac CT and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging protocols and determinewhich is better. Finding which scan is a better fit for patients is key todiagnosing Coronary Artery Disease. The recent advances in technology havemade it possible to image and accurately identify the coronary arteries.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging and Cardiac CT scans are a non invasive wayof detecting myocardial damage and how well the myocardium is functioning.Advances in multi-detector CT with submillimeter spatial resolution andimproved temporal resolution along with ECG gating of the images, helps todetermine the cardiovascular anatomy, coronary arteries, cardiac function,myocardium, and the pericardium.

Morris, Kendyl: [1:00] [P2] Analyzing the Spin of Media Coverage on Mining Safety Issues. The discussion question for this project is analyzing how media releases promote public discussions on mining health and safety improvements. The focus of this research is based through a project entitled Mining and Industrial Safety Technology and Training Innovation (MISTTI). This presentation examines how the different media types and mining companies reflect news to the public, specifically topics involved with mining dust levels and dust exposures. Starting through April of 2010, we have gathered a wide variety of mining news coverage and sorted them based on date, title, author, website it was posted on, location, and media publisher. Through our observations and research we have found that the content of news releases vary depending on several factors: author, location, issue, and the mining company involved. The analysis shows that original press releases published by government regulating agencies and by coal companies are modified by media publishers, depending on the specifics of the above listed factors. In conclusion our research suggests that federal organizations and mining companies who are promoting health and safety guidelines may benefit from strategic use of social media for publishing their press releases, which would allow wide dissemination of original source material and greater opportunities for directly connecting with targeted audiences.

Morris, Kendyl: [10:00-10:15] [1D] [ASC-312] Fundraising through SendOutCards. Fundraising is an unavoidable element involved in funding student based clubs and organizations. For my senior project, I have researched fundraising techniques and then compared and contrasted their success rate with an upcoming product called SendOutCards. There are several various methods that one can use, but my presentation will focus on using SendOutCards and why it should be a preferred option over other fundraising methods.

Morris, Levi: [3:30-3:45] [2C] [ASC-215] The Political Philosophy of Zombies. This paper explores the multitude of ways in which zombies interact with politics. First it examines the primary literal example of zombies affecting politics by exploring the unifying role of vodoun during the Haitian Revolution. Next, there is the zombie's inherent symbolism that lends it great utility in describing different aspects of past and present political economies. Capitalists, democrats, neo-conservatives, and several other political actors engage in activities that can be framed in a zombie lens. Finally, it explores "Foreign Policy" magazine contributor Dan Drezner's recent analysis of the hypothetical threat of a zombie apocalypse, in which he explains how different political theories would deal with the crisis.

Nestasie, Michael: [1:00] [P2] Diminished Mitochondrial Protein Import in Association with ALS. The devastating neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is, in some cases, caused by mutations in the human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. Although the mechanism of mutant SOD1 induced motor neuron death is not known, data supporting decreased mitochondrial efficiency has been reported. We hypothesized that the polyanionic SOD1 proteins might interact with cationic mitochondrial targeting sequences to decrease the mitochondrial protein import. Cytoplasmic extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the human wild type, A4V, or G93A mutants were analyzed using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The G93A SOD1 protein illustrated a more negative net charge than the wild type on the native gel, and the A4V SOD1 protein illustrated a more negative net charge than both G93A and the wild type. The hypothesis is also being tested by co-expressing mitochondria targeted green fluorescent protein with either wild type or mutant human SOD1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Possible outcomes of this research could benefit worldwide ALS research and ALS patients.

Newlon, Courtney: [1:00] [P2] An Examination of the Influence of Serious Video Game Play on Body Language. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serious video game play and body language. Researchers viewed several video examples of students playing the Selene video game and rated their movements on variety of levels including head and torso movement. The coding was done for nine different students and interrater reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. For a majority of the videos, the alpha score was 1.00 for all categories, but there was one video in which a male participant had a torso alpha score of .571, a head score of .857, and other score of .581. A possible reason for lower reliability on this video may be related to the fact that the researchers were not able to easily identify the movements of the participant because of video angle. Overall, it seems as if participants do exhibit certain movements while playing serious games, but this research is far from being conclusive. Future research could extend to other serious games and entertainment games to support the relationship between movements and levels of engagement. Research could be extended by examining the relationships between flow and body language during video game play.

Norman, Ryan: [2:30-2:45] [2C] [ASC-215] A Truthful Fantasy: J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. The Lord of the Rings was one of the most read works of literature of the twentieth century, yet this epic work was written in a genre that has been derided as trivial, frivolous, and incapable of communicating any significant message: fantasy. Tolkien, however, believed that fantasy – far from being a genre of triviality – could, in fact, convey universal truths about the actual human condition. By taking readers out of their literal world and into a completely literary world, Tolkien believed that fantasy – and fiction in general – creates a contrast that illuminates fundamental truths of the human experience. Tolkien's own Lord of the Rings exhibits these characteristics of fantasy and in doing so provides readers a new perspective from which to examine their own world. Venturing through Middle-earth, readers recognize that stewardship, heroism, and hope are the tools that the Fellowship of the Ring employs to rid the world of the tyrant, Sauron. Though this fantasy's people, places, and events are obviously fictitious, readers clearly recognize the value of stewardship, heroism, and hope because they are virtues that exist in the real world as well. Ultimately, in juxtaposing a literary world with the literal world, Tolkien shows that love – from which all other virtues derive – is the most powerful and good force in human nature.

Norman, Ryan: [10:00-10:30] [1B] [ASC-213] Categories of Art, Art Forms, and Aesthetic Experiences. Aesthetics and the philosophy of art examine and comment on the creative and artistic output of humankind. My presentation shares in this impulse by suggesting how we might best categorize the various kinds of art people produce. With such an organizational structure in place, we can then more meticulously examine why some pieces are considered masterworks, while others are lost to history, or never even reach the status of art. Criticisms and compliments of art seem ultimately to derive either from objective appeals to how a piece embodies a particular art form, or from subjective appeals to an individual's experience with a piece. While some might say that these two approaches are incompatible or reveal art criticism as an exercise in relativism,
these two methods of evaluating art actually reflect the richness and breadth of the human artistic experience. As multifaceted human beings, we communicate through art in diverse ways; thus, our evaluative processes should be open to a wide range of ways to receive and prize art.

Norman, Ryan: [3:00-3:15] [2C] [ASC-215] Gustav Mahler: Composer of the World. The Late-Romantic composer and conductor, Gustav Mahler, is unlike any other in the history of western classical music. Mahler said, "A symphony should be like the world; it must embrace everything." And the composer's own Third Symphony accomplishes this vision more fully than any other; this music indeed gives us the whole world. Mahler's Third Symphony communicates the breadth and depth of the human experience; it expresses triumph and tragedy, banality and sublimity, terror and joy, despair and hope. Furthermore, when viewed in concert with his other nine symphonies, Mahler's works take us from the birth of his musical universe to a vision of the composer's own death as he imagined it in music. What informs the grand scope of this music is Mahler's life as man, conductor, and composer. The man Mahler endured the loss of six brothers and sisters in childhood, anti-Semitism, marital infidelities, and finally, a debilitating heart condition. The conductor Mahler was a perfectionist and a tyrant at the podium, pushing orchestras to perform with an unparalleled mastery of technique and expression. The composer Mahler created musical musings on the fragility of life, the beauty of nature, the existence of God, and the transcendent power of love. Mahler desperately sought for spiritual and emotional certainty in his life, and his music displays this search through pieces that have become cornerstones of the orchestral repertoire.

Norman, Ryan: [3:15-3:30] [2C] [ASC-215] The Zombie Within Us: What a Pop Culture Phenomenon Tells Us about the Human Condition. We are in the midst of a "Zombie Renaissance."Everywhere from our movie screens to our analogies for brain functionszombies are invading our consciousness. Historically, zombies firstappeared in accounts from the Caribbean of people rising from the graveand returning to their homes, though with a flat affect and reducedmobility. The recent rebirth in interest in this phenomenon is marked bymany with the premiere of the movie 28 Days Later in 2002, wherein survivors of a biological outbreak struggle to survive in a postapocalyptic world inhabited by undead ghouls. The zombies in this filmare people who have been infected with a virus that leaves them slaves toan insatiable desire for human flesh. No matter the mechanism, though, atthe foundation of every zombie incarnation lies control. As humans, westruggle to control our lives in the face of instinctual desires, societalstrictures, and the inevitability of death. When these drives overpower our will, we end up in a zombie-like state, doomed to a fate seeminglybeyond our control. When understood in this broad context, zombies can beseen in the great literature of our past and the blossoming fiction of thepresent: George Orwell's 1984, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings,and Stephen King's Cell present three distinct visions of thezombification process, resulting in the social, psychological, and psychiczombie. Each of these works explores our human desire for control and thedevastating effects of losing control.

Ogonek, Nathan: [11:00] [P1] Treating Medial and Lateral Epicondylitis with Low-Level Laser Therapy. This research will attempt to find a treatmenttechnique that is more effective than the existing treatment protocols,when it comes to treating medial and lateral elbow pain. There will befifteen to twenty participants taking part in this research study. Theparticipants will be split into two groups. One group will receive atypical treatment protocol, while the other group will receive anappropriate dosage of low-level laser therapy. Each group will be asked tocomplete a questionnaire at the end of each week, describing the paincharacteristics that are present with the elbow pain. I hope to use theresults from this research to prove that low-level laser therapy iseffective in terms of assisting the healing process of medial and lateralelbow pain. It is also my intention to publish these results in an attemptto increase the use of low-level laser therapy in a clinical setting.

Pavlik, Christina; Antoinette, Johnson, Little, Moore: [1:00] [P2] Impact of Body Size on Perceived Personality. In our study, we were interested in determining how college students would evaluate the personalities of men and women represented by line drawings of figures of varying sizes. Eighty-five undergraduates (61 women and 24 men) participated in the study. They looked at eight line drawings, representing male and female figures that were very thin, low-average weight, high-average weight, and obese, and then rated those figures on 20 descriptors. From their ratings, a score on each of five personality factors—openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism—was computed. Each of the five personality factors was analyzed using a 2 (sex of figure) x 2 (size of figure) repeated measures ANOVA. There was remarkable consistency in how female figures were evaluated. The low-average weight female figure was perceived to be most open, conscientious, extroverted, and emotionally stable, while the obese female figure was perceived to be the least open, conscientious, extroverted, and emotionally stable. There was somewhat less consistency in how the male figures were evaluated. Generally, the most negative personality ratings were given to the obese male and female figures. The low-average female figure was rated most positively. Depending on the characteristic, however, male figures ranging from very thin to obese were viewed the most positively. We conclude that negative personality characteristics are most commonly applied to obese men and women, and that positive personality characteristics are applied only to low-average weight women. For men, there is a larger range of body types that are evaluated with positive personality characteristics.

Peters Jr., Edward P.: [10:15-10:30] [1B] [ASC-213] The Composer as Elicitor: Why Musical Works Are Not Created By Humans. This article explores the nature of musical works. Though there is evidence to the contrary, Jerrold Levinson's What a Musical Work Is seeks to justify the customary position that human beings can create musical works. Responding to the theory that musical works are only eternal sound structures, Levinson argues that belief in the created nature of musical works is too endeared to be relinquished. Furthermore, Levinson claims that musical works are created because they are more than sound structures; they are a complex unity of structures indicated in particular circumstances. "The Composer as Elicitor: Why Musical Works Are Not Created By Humans" agrees that musical works are complex unities of Levinson's sort but refutes Levinson's claim that the complexity of musical works means that they can be created. The central argument is that musical works exist, in part, independently of human beings, and no unity whose composition is partly eternal may be created, so musical works cannot be created.

Pierson, Elizabeth H.: [1:00] [P2] Comparative Immunofluorescent Analysis of Tumor Cell Leading Edge Properties and Susceptibility to Pseudomonas Type III Secretion. Difficulties in effectively treating tumors have led to the exploration of bacterial-based anti-tumor therapies. Previous studies have shown that tumor cells are more sensitive to the Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) than are normal cells. Pa uses type III secretion (T3S) to infect its host, and our current hypothesis is that Pa associates with leading edge (LE) membranous complexes to infect its host. The current study aims to ascertain the degree of cellular transformation required for increased sensitivity to Pa-T3S through the comparison of untransformed MRC-5 cells, partially transformed COS-7 cells, and fully transformed HT-1080 cells. Additionally, the sensitivity of metastatic HT-1080 cells will be compared to that of the non-metastatic Caov-3 cells to determine if migration is required for increased susceptibility. Immunofluorescence microscopy and Western Blot analyses will be used to assess sensitivity levels to Pa-T3S among cell lines. Higher numbers of co-localized Pa are expected to be found in cell lines transformed to a higher degree and in lines with higher instances of migration. The ineffectiveness of current cancer treatments together with their harsh side effects has led to the demand for a novel approach to therapy centered upon tumor cell selectivity. If the mechanism behind tumor cell sensitivity to Pa-T3S is better understood, future studies using genetically altered Pa to allow for save delivery of anti-tumor drugs may be possible.

Pierson, Elizabeth: [1:00] [P2] A comparative neurobiological assessment of PWS patients and the classic zombie. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by uncontrollable appetite, limited motor movement, and a frequent display of rage. Approximately 1:15,000 people are affected by this disorder for which there is no known cure. The classic zombie shares all three of these behaviors in the never-ending quest for human flesh, unsteady lurching stagger, and ferocity with which they hunt. The corresponding symptoms in both PWS patients and zombies may originate from malfunctioning in parallel regions of the brain. The purpose of this study was to assess the sources of dysfunction in appetite, motor movement, and emotion in both ailments through inspection of the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and amygdala. The results of these analyses confirmed that overlapping symptoms in both study groups were due to malfunction in the same location of the brain. This suggests that treatments used for the symptoms of PWS may be applicable to those of the living dead, reducing the severity of their lifestyle and their danger to others.

Prickett, Torey: [11:00] [P1] Speed Training vs. Strength Training: Which is more beneficial for improving speed? This study will attempt to find the relationship and unique benefits between speed training and strength training to improve top running speeds. The research will require a group of twelve high school football players to undergo a training program to gather data for analyzing results. Groups of four participants will utilize strength training, speed training, and both strength and speed training. The data will be compared to decide which of the programs is more beneficial, and if the two put together produce a desirable outcome.

Probert, Joseph: [11:00] [P1]Does the Power Balance bracelet really have a physiological
effect on performance enhancement, or is it purely psychological? This study will analyze the performance enhancement effect of the new Power Balance bracelet. Participants of the research will fill out questionnaires and perform physical exercises that will be analyzed and compiled to determine if the bracelet has a physiological or a psychological (placebo) effect. The study will include deception of the participants. They will be told they are wearing the actual bracelet but at times they will be wearing a placebo. The objective is to compare the
results of the exercise while wearing the real bracelet and while they are wearing the placebo. This is the first time a study has been formally done to examine the effects of the Power Balance bracelet on physical activity.

Rabant, Shane: [10:30-10:45] [1D] [ASC-312] BOHO Boards Advertising Portfolio. A modern world advertising portfolio for the BOHO Boards company. Including a verity of advertising strategies, graphics, real world ads, and the use of social networking as a free form of online advertising. All this in order to brand and unify the name of BOHO Boards longboarding company.

Rennie. Katy: [11:00] [P1] Thermodynamic Studies on Conjugated Heteroalkenes. The objective of this research is to evaluate the resonance stabilization of oxygen and nitrogen containing conjugated compounds. This will be accomplished by measuring the heat of hydrogenation for conjugated compounds and comparing it to that of non-conjugated compounds. When hydrogen is added to a carbon-carbon double bond, energy is released (heat of hydrogenation). If there is resonance stabilization, less energy is released, because the molecule is more stable. This resonance stabilization effect in hydrocarbons with two or more carbon-carbon double bonds has been exhaustively studied.1-5 The resonance stabilization of a carbon-carbon double bond conjugated to the carbon-oxygen double bond (C=O) of ketones and aldehydes is also widely accepted.6 However, reports of the actual resonance stabilization energies of molecules other than hydrocarbons have been considerably less numerous.7,8 The resonance stabilization of carbon-carbon double bonds conjugated to a carbon-nitrogen double bond is even less well studied than the oxygen containing compounds.9,10 While conjugated enimines (C=C-C=N) have been used synthetically for decades, there has been little investigation into the resonance stabilization of these compounds. The heats of hydrogenation will be determined for a series of enimines with varying structures to probe the effect structure has on resonance stabilization and therefore on the extent of conjugation. This project combines physical organic investigation with synthetic methodology.

Reyher, Chelsea: [10:15-10:30] [1D] [ASC-312] Keeping Creativity. Children have an innate desire to be creative, specifically with words. It is important to foster this innate creative desire to write when children are still young. Unfortunately, creative writing lags behind in today's education curriculum. Keeping Creativity is a presentation on why creative writing is a worthwhile class. It is such an important aspect of the learning process that, I advocate integrating it into the Elementary and Middle school curriculum. This presentation will go through the critical thinking process on why this is the best choice and how it will be implemented.

Riley, Noah: [3:00-3:15] [2B] [ASC-213] How the Ecuadorian Economy Produces and Supports "Zombie-Like" Jobs. In Ecuador, public areas, such as buses and streetcorners, bustle with small local vendors selling their products orperforming their services, many of which are based solely on one productor service, such as selling oranges or shining shoes. Many of theseEcuadorians can be seen day after day in the same location rattling offthe same short phrase over and over in the same loud monotone voice exhibiting what can be considered "zombie-like" behavior in a sense. Itis the intention of this paper to analyze the economic factors of Ecuadorand explore how these factors produce this type of job and behavior andwhy it could be considered "zombie-like" in regards to the symbolism ofthe fictional zombie.

Rouhier, Chris: [2:30-2:45] [2B] [ASC-213] A Limited Discourse: The Commission on Presidential Debates' Exclusion of Minor Party and Independent Candidates. This paper questions whether or not the Commission on Presidential Debates discriminates against minor party and independent presidential candidates. Using Ralph Nader's 2000 presidential campaign as a case study, this paper examines the history of the Electoral College and presidential nominating processes, the history and practices of the Commission on Presidential Debates, its criteria for entry into the debates and whether or not it is discriminatory. The stated motives of the CPD as well as its policies make it apparent that the organization discriminates against minor party and independent candidates. Nevertheless, it is part of a system that favors candidates with strong bases of national support in both primaries and the general election.

Rouhier, Chris: [10:00-10:15] [1A] [ASC-212] World of Hurt: The Rise and Fall of the 1974-75 World Football League. The 1970s sporting world can be distinguished by the presence of three "rebel" sports leagues. The American Basketball Association and World Hockey Association both made vigorous challenges to their more established rivals, and eventually merged with them. The third, the World Football League, was much less successful. Founded by Gary Davidson - who played important roles in the other two leagues – the WFL kicked off amid much fanfare in the summer of 1974. Yet the league was dead by the fall of 1975. Financial deficiency, an inflated sense of importance, and the "Ticketgate" scandal all combined to prove fatal to the league, despite attempts to revive it in a more fiscally prudent form for its second season.

Rouhier, Chris: [10:15-10:30] [1A] [ASC-212] The Shuster Commission: Bureaucratic Inefficiency and Breaches of Secrecy. In 1945, the United States Department of War commissioned a group of war historians to interview Nazi war criminals. The six member commission, led by Hunter College President George Shuster, convened at Mondorf, Luxembourg and interviewed some of the uppermost German officials, including Hermann Goering, Alfred Jodl, and Albert Kesselring. Through a combination of biographies, war history, and the personal papers of several of the Commission members, this paper will examine the selection process, the interrogations, and the results of the interviews. Ultimately, the Shuster Commission completed its goal of documenting the war from the German perspective, but was impeded by bureaucratic dysfunction.

Sappington, Mark; Bova, Andrea: [1:00] [P2] Effects or Peppermint Scent Administration on Cognitive Video Game Performance using the Wii Gaming System. Past research has shown the positive effects of video game play while other research has shown the benefits of peppermint scent administration. in the present study assessed the combination of video game play and peppermint scent on physiology, mood, performance, and task load. Participants completed a baseline control condition and were then assigned to either repeat the control session or to an experimental condition in which peppermint scent was delivered via nasal cannula at 3LPM. Participants played 3 Nintendo Wii Fit Plus Games requiring cognitive and hand/eye reactions (perfect 10, snowball fight and obstacle course). Participants in the peppermint scent condition showed greater improvements such as completing significantly more levels [t(14)= - 2.29 p=.01], more hits[t(14)= -4.03, p=.001] and stars [t(14)= -4.00, p=.04] and distance completed [t(14)=-1.97, p=.08]. Further participants in the peppermint condition reported decreased mental demand [t(14)=1.96, p=.070, perceived effort [t(14)=2.27, p=.039], and anxiety [t(14)=2.39, p=.031]. In terms of physiological data, control group participants had a significantly lower pulse change [t(15)=12.13, p=.069]; whereas, participants in the peppermint scent condition experienced no significant difference in pulse, suggesting that the scent administration promoted greater physiological arousal, thus keeping participants more engaged in the testing process. Implications include the combination of video games and a physiologically arousing scent (specifically, peppermint) to further promote cognitive performance.

Sappington, Mark: [1:00] [P2] Influence of Artificial Sweeteners on Pain Perception. Previous research has shown that sweet substance consumption can increase pain tolerance and decrease pain ratings. The present study assessed the ability of artificial sweeteners to produce the same results. Participants completed a cold pressor task (hand immersion in 3 degree Celsius water) under six conditions (xylitol, sucralose, aspartame,saccharin, stevia and a non-sweetener control condition). Tolerance was the greatest in the stevia condition, such that participants held their hand in the cold pressor device an average of 30 seconds longer as compared to other conditions. F(5,135)=2.553, p=.031. Xylitol was rated as the most pleasant artificial sweetener while stevia was rated as the least pleasant artificial sweetener, F(4, 92)=25.792, p=.000. Similar results were found for sweetness intensity ratings with xylitol being the most intense and stvia being the least intense, F(4 ,92)=5.928, p=.000. Results indicate that some artificial sweeteners can influence pain tolerance in a similar way to natural sweeteners. Implications for such a research include seeking ways to use such artificial sweeteners for distraction to pain and as an adjunct to pain management.

Simpson, Aaron: [2:45-3:00] [2A] [ASC-212] Divided They Fall: Failure of the German Resistance to Hitler. During World War Two the not all the German people were in support of Hitler and his policies. There were two major groupsthat were in opposition to Hitler and made attempts on his life. Thegroups were never able to actually succeed in assassinating Hitler and the main cause was that the two groups only worked together on one operation and it was to little to late. After their one joint attempt the groups were destroyed by the Nazis.

Stuvek, Megan: [11:00] [P1] Comparison of Nuclear Medicine Stress testing and Cardiac CT and which one yields greater benefits for the patients. The research being done is supposed to be focused in on our field of study, which is Nuclear Medicine. I have chosen to focus in on the imaging of the heart through computed tomography (CT) and Nuclear Medicine stress testing. My main focus is to see which exams produce better detection of blockage coronary arteries. Because I will be looking for which produces better information on the heart, I will also look into which patients end up getting invasive procedures done to remove the blockage. Also included in my research will be which scans give more convenient scan times and which yield the least amount of radiation exposure. The main reason I want to perform this research is to prove that doing cardiac CT scanning can be just as beneficial as Nuclear Medicine stress testing and sometimes the better route. The research that I am doing will give me the opportunity to shine light on the benefits of cardiac CT scanning that most doctors do not recognize. Cardiac CT is something that really interests me and by presenting this research during research day I hope to catch the eye of other people and spread my knowledge to others. I do not yet have all of the data for my research, because of the fact that I had some personal issues to deal with. Although, my teachers are helping me get more time in the hospitals to complete all of my research.

Taylor, Emily: [3:00-3:15] [2A] [ASC-212] When Extreme Nationalism Destroys. Upon examination of the Ustase Regime and the Croatian Holocaust, my senior thesis will uncover, examine, and elaborate on particular aspects of the Ustasa genocide and Croation fascism in relation to the social campaigns and cleansings of Wold War II. First I will examine the uprising of the Ustasa Regime, briefly uncovering some of the particular events prior to World War II that aid in shaping Croation nationalism and beliefs. More specifically, the focus of the pre-war events will rely heavily on the desire for independence to establish the Independent State of Croatia and the uprising of Ustasa leader, Ante Pavelic. I will rely heavily on the examination of the ascepts of Ustasa policy, which include their anti-Serbian views to rid Croatia of so-called "undesirables" and use of forced religious conversion to Catholicism. I will analyze the use of Catholicism as a forefront in Ustase control, especially on the importance of religion in shaping national image and identity. Further examination will also lead to the Ustasa heavy reliance of German Nazis to ethnically cleanse their country and to preserve Croatia's independence. This influence will reveal itself most prominently when looking Ilija Ivanovic's story of his survival in the Ustashe run concentration camp, Jasenovac.

West, Drew: [11:00] [P1] When Various Extubation Forces Are Applied, Do Traditional Taping Methods or Endotracheal Tube Holders Provide the Greatest Endotracheal Tube Securement? This research experiment will examine the physical strengths and securement capabilities of endotracheal tube holders and commonly used securement tape. A pulley system with varying weight attachments will be secured to an endotracheal tube, which will be positioned in the airway of a manikin. Measurements will be observed numerous times with various weight and securement method trials. The data collected will be analyzed and compared to similar research experiments which have been performed. My goal for this research is to determine which method of endotracheal tube securement provides the most securement when exposed to different physical stress levels. Such evidence may then be used by medical professionals to help safely ventilate patients who are intubated with an endotracheal tube.

White, Brittany: [1:00] [P2] Melphalan Treatment Induces An Interleukin-6 Deficit In The Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Toxicity of Melphalan is Observed. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and osteoblasts (HOB) are components of the bone marrow microenvironment that support hematopoiesis and hematopoietic recovery following bone marrow transplantation. Aggressive chemotherapy not only affects tumor cells, but it also influences functional components of the microenvironment. Successful bone marrow transplantation following chemotherapy is dependent on the ability of cellular components of the microenvironment to maintain their functionality including secretion of soluble factors that are critical for the survival, proliferation and differentiation of immature progenitor cells. IL-6 is a cytokine which has diverse effects on hematopoietic cell development. BMSC and HOB were treated with Melphalan, a relevant drug used in pre-transplant regimens, for 48 hours, and it was concluded Melphalan led to decreased IL-6 protein and mRNA expression in the BMSC and HOB through ELISA and real-time PCR analysis. It was also concluded that incubating the cells with Melphalan and recombinant IL-6 did not restore IL-6 protein in the HOB, but IL-6 protein levels were restored in the BMSC. In addition, the toxicity of Melphalan is being observed and compared among normal and malignant tissues in the body. Various normal and malignant cells are incubated in the presence or absence of 50ng/mL of Melphalan for 24-48 hours. Cell viability is then determined utilizing a Calcein Viability kit. It is hypothesized the malignant tissues will be more sensitive to Melphalan than the normal tissues. This topic is important to research because if the results prove to be successful, Melphalan proposes a novel way of treating malignant tissues.

Williams, Caroline: [11:00] [P1] Current Concussion Management Techniques and the Effect of Diet on the Return to Play Time. This study will attempt to ascertain a relationship between diet and concussion management techniques as well as look at the current trends used by athletic trainers and other health care professionals. Information about current trends in concussion management will be collected through surveys. The research will require participants to follow a specific diet plan and record their concussion symptoms on a daily basis until cleared to return to activities by a health care professional. This is the first time any research has attempted to make an association between diet and concussion management techniques. If a relationship is established, further research can be conducted to benefit those who receive a concussion.

Williams, Dean: [2:30-2:45] [2A] [ASC-212] German Forced Labor in World War Two. My presentation will explain the fundamental elements surrounding slave labor in Germany during World War Two. It will explain its necessity from the German perspective, the viewpoint from the individual laborers, and the overall successes and failures of the program The presentation will detail how and why German leaders executed their strategy and the hardships inflicted on the foreign workers themselves. Within the presentation, various industries will be analyzed and the conditions within the work environment explained. Ultimately, it will explain how the evolution of the war, and the Third Reich's need to maintain its war effort, forced Germany to compromise its ideological position on racial supremacy.

Winters-Hazen, Katherine: [1:00] [P2] Use of Line Drawings to Assess Perceptions of Healthy Weight. Body image dissatisfaction is consistently reported by adults and adolescents. Studies of body image satisfaction and itscorrelates often make use of the Stunkard drawings, two sets of nine linedrawings, one of men and one of women, varying in amount of body fat fromvery thin to very obese.One part of our study attempts to uncover properties of the scale itselfthat may make its use more valid. We asked a sample of 59traditionally-aged undergraduate college students (15 men and 44 women) to estimate the body weights of each of the Stunkard figures. Results suggest that the scale is an interval scale as regards percent weight change, with approximately equal intervals between each set of figures. A second purpose of our study was to determine the body mass indices for the figures judged by participants to be the healthiest. The corresponding BMIs were 24.9 for the male figure and 21.6 for the female figure. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, healthy BMIs range from 18.5-24.9, placing our participants' perception of femalehealth in the middle of that range and of male health at the extreme upper end. The figures participants chose as representing the healthiest male and female were not related to the participant's own reported height and weight. Taken together, these results suggest that the Stunkard line drawings are a useful tool for studying body image.

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