Student Research and Scholarship Symposium 2003 Abstracts

Explanation of the coding system:  The following abstracts are presented in alphabetical order by first author.  For the oral presentations, the information in the brackets includes the time of the presentation (e.g. 2:28), the session number (e.g. 2C), and the location of the session (e.g. D108).  For poster sessions, the bracketed information includes the time of the session (e.g. 1:00) and the poster board number where the poster is to be found (e.g. P4).

Arnold, Melissa: World peace through world trade: The effects of economic isolation on Louis Marx and Company (1921-1982) [(11:35)(2C)(ASC-215)] In 1919, Louis Marx and his brother David founded Louis Marx & Company a toy manufacturing business.  Louis Marx & Company manufactured mechanical toys, steel and plastic toys, and trains.  Louis Marx's goals for his toy manufacturing business were to "Give the customer more toy for less money" as well as to "Use mass production and mass distribution to turn out cheap toys."  Marx quickly learned from the toy industry that the best way to achieve his goals was through a global free market.  Marx soon set up factories all around the world including Hong Kong, Brazil, and Japan.  With Marx, there is no scandal to uncover.  He ran an ethical overseas operation.  Marx identified workers as ends in themselves, not simply as means to an end.  Many different factors influenced Louis Marx & Company.  The most significant factor was the effect of politics on Louis Marx & Company.  During the life of Louis Marx & Company, there were times of economic isolation and globalization espoused by the United States government.  Through much research it is easy to see that the times of economic globalization was good for Marx's business and helped him achieve his original goals.  Times of economic isolation were difficult for the company, but it was able to survive due to the ingenuity, skill, and hard work of Louis Marx.  Marx was able to keep his business afloat and overcome the obstacle of government through great strategy and his keen sense of the toy industry.  It is because of Louis Marx's skill that his company was able to become the largest toy manufacturer in the world, producing over one third of all toys in the world.

Arrington, Sarah: Analysis of Wine for Pesticides using HPLC [(1:15)(P 1)] A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of thiram, a pesticide, and its degradation product, ethylenethiourea, in various wines.  Separations were performed with a reverse-phase C-8 column using an aqueous mobile phase buffered to pH with a UV detector.  Wine samples were spiked with thiram and ethylenethiourea and the chromatograms were compared and analyzed.

Barker, Shannon & Morris, Michael: Relationship Between Computer-Guided and Researcher-Measured Body Fat Percentage [(1:15)(P 2)]Over the past decade, obesity has become an escalating problem in society.  Because of health risks associated with obesity, a need exists for the development of a non-evasive technique for people to measure body fat percentage for monitoring health status, providing another method of control for obesity.  Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to assess the accuracy and effectiveness of a computerized body fat assessment program in relation to researcher-measured body fat percentages.  Previous research has supported the ability of subjects to self-assess body measurements accurately. The present study attempted to provide further support of this concept by using a computer-guided self-assessment program to measure body fat percentage. Eight subjects (4 male, 4 female) were asked to follow the on-screen instructions using the tape measure provided to measure and record their circumference values.  After completing a questionnaire assessing gender, height, and weight, researchers then measured the same circumferences as were measured in the computer program for each subject No statistical difference was found between the computer-guide self-assessment values and the researcher-measured values.  This suggests that the computer-guided technique is an accurate and reliable method of body fat percentage assessment

Beaver, Kaili:  Assessing the Juvenile Justice System and Restorative Approach [(9:45)(1A)(ASC-212)]  The following research involves West Virginia Juvenile Probation Officers' views toward the sanctioning processes for current methods used versus the restorative justice approach.  From the establishment of the first Juvenile Courts System in 1899, the Juvenile Justice System has developed into what is the present day structure.  As society becomes more aware of the sanctioning processes that youthful offenders are facing, questions emerge as to the future of the Juvenile Justice System.  Restorative Justice has brought new ideals to the system regarding punishment of juvenile delinquents that upholds a sanction but with victim and community involvement and better, more appropriate sanctions processes.  The researcher has analyzed data obtained through a survey, which was compiled with information about probation officers' views towards sanctions and restorative views; this may lead to an understanding of how juveniles are being sanctioned, why they are receiving the designated sentences, and where the Juvenile Justice System should progress in the future.

Board, Ingrid: The Search for Personal Freedom by Two of Ibsen's Heroines [(1:15)(3A)(ASC-212)] Ibsen's two plays, A Doll's House and Hedda Gabler, both explore the theme of personal aspirations conflicting with social expectations, marital responsibilities, and personal doubt.  The twosimilar plays each revolve around a heroine who is forced to live in a world that stifles her desires in order that she maintains the decorum in society.  While both plays reflect similar themes, each heroine formulates a strikingly different way to escape her world.  In A Doll's House, Nora rejects her former existence for a dark, uncertain future so that she can improve herself and actualize her dreams of becoming a free individual. Hedda, in Hedda Gabler, on the other hand refuses to improve her life's situation.   Hedda's solution to her predicament is to act spitefully to everyone around her and to bring about her own destruction because she lacks the power within herself to perform a courageous act and thereby break free of society's expectations.  Ibsen's two heroines symbolize ideals that reflect the qualities one needs to break free from a restricting society and qualities that keep a woman forever a slave to patriarchal rhetoric.

Bowling, Cindi: The Relationship between Religiosity and Attitudes toward Premarital Sex [(2:50)(4A)(ASC-212)] Recent studies of sexual behavior have shown that church attendance and permissive beliefs are significant factors in understanding premarital sexual behavior and that participation in religion, including church attendance, was the most important predictor of sexual attitudes.  I have found that the more religiously conservative a person considers himself or herself to be and the closer to God he or she feels on a daily basis, the less likely he or she will report that sex occurred in an ambiguous situation.  People who consider prayer, faith, and group worship to be less important were more likely to believe that sex occurred.  Significant correlations were found as a result of liberalism, closeness to God, importance of prayer, importance of group worship, importance of faith, and a self-report of religiosity. Males and females were equally likely to report that sex did or did not occur in an ambiguous situation, but there was a gender affect in whether the participant would act the same way that the main character of his or her gender did, showing that females were more likely to report that they would do what Jane did in the scenario. Participants attributed emotions such as guilt, emotional pain or heartache, contentment, vulnerability, fear, and physical pain only to the female in the situation.  Participants attributed emotions such as excitement and pride to the male only.  Some emotions, such as pleasure, regret, apprehension, and infatuation were assigned to both male and female.   However, it was found that participants were close to three times more likely to assign feelings of being "used" or taken advantage of to Jane as they were to attribute those feelings to Mike.  Jane was more than twice as likely to be uncomfortable in the situation than was Mike.  Twenty-five of the participants reported that Jane and Mike were just friends, 15 reported that they were dating, and seven participants believed they were in a relationship of a different type.

Cardillo, Jamie: An Analysis of Gender, Length, and Weight Ratios for 17-year Periodical Cicadas [(2:50)(4B)(ASC-213)] The periodical cicada, a unique, flying, plant-feeding insect of the Order Homoptera, is the subject of this research.  The focus is on the life cycle of the Magicicada sp. and how their developmental time effects their period of emergence, sex, length, and weight.  Because of their unique life cycle, periodical cicadas spend five juvenile stages underground in which they maintain growth.  The cicada juveniles are called "nymphs" at this interval they live below the Earth, sucking root fluids for food. Following this period the cicadas emerge and spend roughly four to six days as "teneral" adults before they harden completely.  Males and females can be distinguished according to the shape and components of their abdomens. This study compared the differences in the length and weight of male and female cicadas.  The dimensions were measured using digital calipers and a balance.  These procedures were performed following the collection of adult cicadas, which began in May 2002 when emergence began.  This was done over a three week time period.  The collection site was plot number 15 in the campground at Raccoon State Park located in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Differences in male and female cicadas and their prolonged development might be favored to increase fecundity and success of reproduction.  The data showed a higher count of males during the first two weeks.  However, the weight of the females surpassed the males for the entire study.

Carissimi, Chris: Redefining Internet Interaction and Web Browsing - A Personal Portfolio [(11:15)(2B)(ASC-315)] The objective of this project is to create a contemporary website that appropriately and creatively represents its owner, Christopher Carissimi.  The site conveys a menagerie of messages that span a broad scope of themes, while simultaneously bridging the gap between innovative creativity and professional communication.  The site will present the user (viewer) with an innovative design that differs drastically from the norm established by typical, commonplace websites.  Its intended purpose is to serve as a digital portfolio in the hopes of accurately, yet inventively representing the work and accomplishments of its creator.  The site eschews conventional web based methods in an attempt to create an unusual, yet applicable user interface that will not only create a stimulating experience, but also help to define a future genre for web designers.

Carrier, Raeann & Arrington, Sarah: Development of a GC/MS  Method To Determine Caffeine Levels in Beverages [(3:10)(4B)(ASC-213)]Although, many products claim to be caffeine-free or decaffeinated; however, there is no acceptable standard that is used to determine whether a product has any caffeine.  It is important to know how much caffeine is in a given beverage because most times the beverages are used as a stimulant, which can lead to addiction.  It is hypothesized that normal levels of caffeine would be about 500 nanograms in regular beverages and about 250 nanograms in decaffeinated beverages.  It is thought by these researchers that beverages advertised as caffeine free may contain small concentrations of caffeine such as 25 nanograms. Gas chromatography can be used to determine the caffeine concentrations of various beverages.  Gas chromatography was utilized because of the quickness in run time, twelve minutes per sample, and the ability to run numerous samples at a sitting.  Lidocaine was used as an internal standard because of its similar properties, such as size and retention time, to caffeine.  The concentrations tested were varied to encompass a greater range of caffeine on the standard curve.  The same methods were used to test beverages. The beverages tested included decaffeinated coffee and regular coffee.  It was found that there was 0.534 grams of caffeine in a regular 12-ounce cup of coffee and 0.050 grams of caffeine in a decaffeinated 12-ounce cup of coffee.  Tea contains 143.54 nanograms/milliliter caffeine and a Twinlab Energy Booster® contained 5364.40 nanograms/milliliter.  Many soft drink samples contained 0.5 nanograms/milliliter and caffeine was not detected in decaffeinated coca-cola and caffeine free root beer.

Cook, Tim: A Comparative Analysis of Crime Reports Between Public and Private Universities [(10:05)(1A)(ASC-212)] The purpose of this study was to determine if campus crimes reports published by 4-year private non-for-profit colleges and universities differed from those reports published by public 4 year and private for-profit colleges and universities. Secondary data were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education Office of Post-secondary Education to determine if reported crimes were higher at public 4 year institutions and 4 year private for profit institutions than private not for profit institutions. More specifically, the researcher examined 9 criminal offenses including non-negligent manslaughter, forcible sex offenses, non-forcible sex offenses, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, motor vehicle theft, arson, and negligent manslaughter. The schools were selected from a population of 1894 schools, using a systematic random sample. Twenty-two private for profit schools, 161 private not-for profit schools, and 64 public institutions were selected (247 schools total). Data were entered into SPSS and statistics were calculated to determine if there was in fact a significant difference in crime reported between public and private schools. Results indicated that 5.3 crimes on average occurred at private universities, while 28.8 crimes on average were committed at public institutions. However, population was a factor that needed to be examined-the data showed a correlation between the population of the school and the number of crimes committed.

D'Angelo, Tara: Why Did She Do It?: An In Depth Look at the Female Serial Killer [(1:35)(3A)(ASC-212)] In this descriptive study, the researcher wished to explore the phenomenon of the female serial killer.  The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of a theory, which fully explained the phenomenon of the female serial killer.  Qualitative methods were used.  More specifically, a content analysis was performed using the information contained in the literature, books, articles, journals, and Internet resources.  Themes and key concepts were extracted from the data.  Several questions guided the research including: 1. Are women and men's violent and brutal crimes different?  2. Is female criminality changing, specifically are women becoming more violent or brutal in the nature of their crimes?  3. Can the traditional theories of crime help decipher why some women commit violent and brutal crimes?  4. Do nontraditional theories exist that would help decipher female criminality in general (Pollock 1999)?  Using an inductive approach, the researcher will develop suggestions to develop a gendered theory, which explains the phenomenon of the female serial killer.

Fowkes, Briana:  The Effects of Religion on Economic Development 
[(9:45)(1B)(ASC-213)]  Economic development has been attributed to geography, government structure, economic policy, environment, the supply of natural resources and even the weather.  Until the last few decades, very little attention, however, has been given to the affect religious beliefs have upon economic development. The purpose of this research is to determine whether Catholicism, in comparison to Protestantism, negatively affects economic development. The research compared Nicaragua and Guyana, using historical analysis.  The study is important to the field, because it considers religion's affect upon economic development, which has been traditionally overlooked, but which might help explain why economic development does or does not occur.

Hansen, Amanda:  Chemical Effects of Longwall Mining on Streams in Marshall County, WV  [(1:55)(3C)(ASC-215)] Physical and chemical features of the environment affect the geological, morphological and biological indicators of a stream, the structure and function of which may be changed by human activities.  The purpose of this study was to compare headwater streams impacted by longwall mining with reference/unimpacted streams in Marshall County, WV. It was hypothesized that the chemical analysis of elements in the longwall-mined streams will be significantly different than the unimpacted streams. The location of each stream site was recorded using a Global Positioning System, beginning at each stream origin, fifty meters downstream, and following with 100-meter intervals for approximately eight to ten samples total.  Fieldwork consists of collecting aquatic macroinvertebrates and sampling water chemistry.  Using EPA rapid bioassessment protocol, aquatic macroinvertebrates were sampled and preserved in 85% ethanol.  Using a Hydrolab consisting of pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature, as well as Hach kits (alkalinity and hardness), water chemistry of each site was completed.   Standards were prepared in order to derive a standard curve for each elemental analysis. Calcium and iron analysis was completed using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer with an air/acetylene flame type. Once the concentrations were obtained, sample mean, population mean, standard deviation and significance level was calculated for the elemental values.  When the surface land cracks, surface water including that of streams, are at risk of being de-watered. The results of calcium and iron elevated levels indicate that the water collected were affected by subsidence.

Heffner, Timothy: The Relationship of the D4 Receptor to Risk-Taking Behavior [(1:55)(4A)(ASC-212)] Novelty-seeking behavior has been a highly researched subject within the past fifteen years by many psychologists. Robert Cloninger developed the tridimensional personality questionnaire in 1987 to determine the four aspects of human behavior. The four subjects include, novelty-seeking, reward dependence, persistence, and harm avoidance. It has been found that there is a correlation between a persons D4 receptor, and novelty-seeking behavior.  Previous research has shown that the most frequently observed alleles of the D4 receptor gene are the 4-repeat and the 7-repeat. Analysis of variance has shown that persons with the 7-repeat allele exhibit significantly elevated novelty-seeking scores in comparison to subjects lacking the 7-repeat allele. This study examines the relationship of the D4 receptor between science majors, and non-science majors. By extracting DNA from each of the subjects, then using the polymerase chain reaction to isolate the D4 allele, the DNA was observed on an electrophoresis gel. It could be suggested that science majors will show the 7-repeat allele, because they chose their major knowing that they will have to take many risks. These risks include the handling of diseases, experimenting with unknown procedures, and having the future of a person's life rest on your ability to treat them (if one is continuing into a professional education). Conversely, non-science majors could be expected to not have the 7-repeat allele because many of the jobs involve working at a desk, or something of minimal risk. In a test of 10 science majors 6 were shown to have the 7 allele repeat.

Hershberger, Justin: Wheeling's Move Into Community Policing: A Look Back at the Past Ten Years [(10:25)(1A)(ASC-212)] Community Policing was an idea that began in the 1960s and sought to get the police departments working along side the law abiding citizens and various other organizations in attempt to reclaim neighborhoods from crime and poverty. The movement has really accelerated in the past 20 years and is now regarded by many as the best approach to high crime neighborhoods. This research tracked the progression of the City of Wheeling into the Community-Policing era.  This was done through a latent content analysis of articles in Wheeling News-Register from January 1, 1992 through December 31, 2001.  The research paid particular attention to the neighborhood of East Wheeling, which is known for street crimes and drug trafficking.  This is also where Wheeling began its community-oriented policing efforts.  The intent of this research is to gauge the willingness and the capacity of the Wheeling Police Department to keep up with the current trends in policing.  It looks at the involvement of six groups of actors essential to community policing.  The media, the business community, the community at large, elected civic officials, other agencies (public, nonprofit, etc.), and law enforcement must combine their efforts and information to improve the quality of life and to lower crime rates in the community.  This study has policy implications directed at Wheeling's community-policing efforts, such as the ONE Weed-N-Seed program.

Jennings, Amy: The Dependency Theory Applied to Dominica and the United States [(11:55)(2A)(ASC-212)] Dependency Theory has been applied to various states and regions, mostly regarding mainland Latin America, to understand if there is a dependent relationship between a powerful state and a weaker, less developed state.  In this study, the theory is applied to Dominica concerning their relationship with the United States and the United Kingdom.  Dominica and the rest of the Caribbean deviate from mainland Latin America due to achieving independence in the 1970s as opposed to mainland Latin America where independence was granted in the 1820s. To understand if a dependent relationship exists, a number of economic indicators were developed from the dependency literature.  This study examines Dominica's export levels of its primary agricultural product, bananas, as well as a secondary export, coconuts, to the two states.  Also examined is Dominica's national debt and the amount of aid the state receives from the World Bank.  From 1993 through 2001, Dominica exported on average eighty-nine percent of their bananas to the United Kingdom.  Coconut export markets were far more diverse, although they tended to be exported primarily in the Caribbean.  The loss of preferential trade last year caused a collapse in the banana market leading to vast unemployment.  Dominica's debt continues to grow as the state struggles to rebuild its economy and explore the possibilities of eco-tourism.  By understanding if Dominica is dependent on the United States or the United Kingdom, Dominica's foreign policy can be better evaluated to determine if it follows one of the two core states examined.

Johnson, Nicole: Getting at the Heart of Spain through Food and Wine [(1:55)(3B)(ASC-213)] Despite regional variations, the cuisine of Spain reveals the culture's incredible propensity to remain true to its roots and past.  There are different regions in Spain, comparable to that of the fifty states in America.  Each region has its own types of food, yet follows the paradigm of Spanish culture as a whole.  Although each region is diverse, one can find many parallels, including the social behavior at mealtimes, the consistency of the meals' structure, and the time it takes place, and the specific customs that all regions share.  Through looking at these variations and similarities, one can derive many insights about Spanish culture.  They have a sense of pride in themselves and in their country.  They find importance in values and traditions, as well as social interaction with friends and family.  There is certain creativity in the presentation, and a certain aesthetic quality.  Food is an art therefore life is an art.

Kaesser, Frank & Reddy, Anushree: Alpha Touch Alpha [(11:35)(2B)(ASC-315)]Touch is an educational application that will be instrumental in teaching visually impaired young people how to form letters (e.g. a, b, c) in both script and Braille. When first opening Alpha Touch the user is presented with the introductory haptic virtual environment (HVE) from within which a button must be pushed to enter the working HVE. Once in the working HVE, a letter may be selected, via the keyboard, after which the appropriate letter is presented in both script and Braille. For the letter 'a' we have implemented a force field, which pulls the user to the starting point of the letter once the cursor is somewhat close to that specific location. Once inside the letter the user is forced to stay within its boundaries until the exit or entrance point is found. The user may trace the shape of both the scripted version and the Braille version, with the aid of a tactile force-feedback, or haptic device known as the PHANToM. The process is somewhat akin to writing the letter over and over again as young people do when learning the art of script. We have created AlphaTouch as a Wheeling Jesuit University software development project for our senior class.

Kmet, Sarah: Determining Whether of Not PKC-a Down Regulationb is Essential for Tumor Promotion by Phorbol Esters [(3:30)(4B)(ASC-213)] In order to see if phorbol esters coupled with PKC down-regulation are essential for tumor promotion, the PKC gene has to be mutated at the site of cleavage.  This is accomplished by site directed mutagenesis.  The amino acids coding for the site of cleavage by calpain are mutated so that the PKC cannot be cleaved by calpain once it is time for PKC to be down-regulated. Once this is accomplished, the treated vector will be put into a bacterium that will not recognize the strand with uracil and will treat it as a mutation by clipping it to shreds.  All that will remain will be our desired mutant.  The mutated gene is then amplified by using PCR analysis.  It will then be possible to observe both the effects of the mutation on the cell alone, as well as the effects of adding phorbol esters to the cell with the mutated gene.  A gel electrophoresis will also be run in order to observe the size of the uncleaved (or cleaved) protein.  The gene has been amplified already with successful digestion.  More results are still pending.

Koon, Jerrod; Lilley, Sarah: Differential Effects of Video Game Play on Pain Tolerance and Threshold [(1:15)(P 4)] Past research indicates visual distractions may increase human pain tolerance. The present study assessed different types of video game distractions and personality characteristics on pain threshold, tolerance, and ratings. Participants (n=30) engaged in three different conditions: mental video game, active video game, and a baseline control. Participants experienced each condition 10 minutes prior to the pain administration (cold pressor test), and during subsequent pain testing. Physiological measures of oxygen saturation, pulse, and blood pressure were assessed prior to task, post task, and post pain administration. Following pain administration, participants completed questionnaires concerning competitiveness, aggressiveness, and video game playing habits. Results indicate that the active video game was successful in reducing participants' pain ratings and increasing pain tolerance when compared to the mental video game and baseline condition. Personality characteristics of aggressiveness, competitiveness, and prior video game playing habits were not a significant factor in affecting pain measures. Thus, the present study indicates that active video game play is an effective adjunct to pain management, regardless of aggressive or competitive tendencies, or prior video game playing habits.

Koon, Jerrod; Smith, Jeffrey; Zoladz, Phillip: Odorant Administration on Sleep Quality, Mood, and Cognitive Performance [(1:15)(P 5)] The present study investigated whether odorant administration during sleep affects sleep patterns, mood, cognitive functioning, and alertness. Participants were monitored for 3 nights, during exposure to jasmine odor, lavender odor, and a non-odored condition. Following sleep, participants completed questionnaires related to mood and tests of cognitive functioning, and indicated alertness level throughout the day. Jasmine odor led to greater sleep efficiency and reduced sleep movement, without differences in total sleep time, thus providing increased sleep quality without the need for addition sleep time. Upon awakening, jasmine condition participants rated their level of anxiety and vigor lower, and performed the cognitive tests more rapidly. Level of alertness in the jasmine condition was greater than the control condition during afternoon hours. These findings provide support for odorant administration as an adjunct to improve sleep, alertness, and mental performance.

Knicely, Donna: Differences in Males and Females after Graduating from Appalachian College [(1:15)(P 6)]  The goal of my research project was to determine if male and female graduates with degrees in math, science, engineering, and computer science from the higher education institutions in the Appalachian region have similar experiences after graduating from these institutions. In the study funded by the WJU/WV Space Grant Consortium I, along with Dr. Smith, using the Appalachian College Association alumni database answered the following questions.  How many men and women have graduated from Appalachian higher education institutions with math, science, or computer science degrees in the 3 cohorts:  1975; 1985; 1995?  What is the current income level for both male and female graduates of these 4 major areas? Are male and female graduates satisfied with their education that they received at the Appalachian higher education institutions?  There were significant differences between males and females in the type of degrees they received from the Appalachian institutions.  The largest difference was seen in the field of engineering, with 91.8% being male.  The only field with more female graduates was mathematics, where 62.9% of the degrees were issued to women.  There was a larger number of females in the income levels up to and including the $40,000-$49,999 with a larger number of males making above $50,000 as compared to females across all majors.  Significantly more females than males were either satisfied or very satisfied with their higher education institutions.  Overall, however, males and females were significantly more satisfied or very satisfied with their institutions of graduation than not satisfied with the institutions.

Lewis, Christopher: A Survey of the Fish Species in Wheeling Creek [(1:15)(P7)] While studying the Wheeling Creek with Dr. Ben Stout, I noticed that there was a large amount of open farmland near the dam at the headwaters of Wheeling Creek.  I saw this open land as a site for a potential industrial park in the future.  Upon researching the topic, I could not find any literature that states the specific fish species found in Wheeling Creek.  This information would be quintessential in bringing a future factory under investigation for possible pollution of the Wheeling Creek.  Through the process of electro-fishing, my collection team gathered the specimens.  The viable fish were released upon identification, and the expired fish were collected and brought back to the lab for preservation.  The research that I have performed has laid the ground for future researchers, so they may have information to compare their results to, if it is needed.

Malik, Mohammed: CO2 Sequestration in Geological Deposits [(9:45)(1C)(ASC-215)] Over the past several years, beginning primarily with United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and followed by the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Kyoto, Japan, an interest in control of CO2 emissions has arisen.  Two of the problems associated with the control of CO2 emissions are, where does one put it and what is the permanency of the depository. Putting the CO2 into geologic formations both identifies a place to put the CO2 and provides a permanency unequalled by other depositories. The work presented in this paper is two-part. The first part of the paper presents kinetic data on CO2 adsorption in calcined calcium silicate and magnesium silicate.  The second part of the paper presents an overview of the economic considerations for geologic deposition of CO2 in calcium and magnesium silicates.

McAteer, Caitlin: Communion of the Absurd": Atheistic Redemption in Greene and Camus [(1:35)(3B)(ASC-213)]  It is my intention to draw a correlation between Albert Camus' "The Stranger" and Graham Greene's "A Burnt-Out Case," based on the philosophy of the absurd. In both novels, the protagonists Meursault and Querry live in self-imposed exile from the society they are meant to be part of.  The subconscious goal of both men is to achieve a union between their solitary, individualistic natures and solidarity with the community that exists around them.  For both Meursault and Querry, this goal is neither acknowledged nor achieved until their deaths at the end of each novel.  With the imminence of death at hand, both men experience an instantaneous epiphany, an atheistic redemption that reveals a communion of solitude and solidarity.

McCumbers, Rebecca: Machiavelli's "An Exhortation to Penitence":  Christianity Without Christ [(10:25)(1B)(ASC-213)] One of the most debated topics in Niccolo Machiavelli's political philosophy is his treatment of Christianity.  In The Prince and The Discourses on Titus Livy, Machiavelli both criticizes and compliments Christianity in a way that creates uncertainty as to whether he is a believer in or an opponent of Christianity.  Those who do not think that Machiavelli was a supporter of Christianity point to passages found in The Prince and the Discourses as proof that his treatment of Christianity is profane, but Machiavelli's defenders often point to a lesser known work, An Exhortation to Penitence, as evidence that Machiavelli promoted Christianity's sacred truths.  When considering ideas presented in the Exhortation along with Machiavelli's other works and Christian teachings, several questions arise:  Is the Exhortation inconsistent with Christian teachings? Is the Exhortation consistent with Machiavelli's previous writings? Also, does the Exhortation promote Machiavelli's political project? A content analysis of the Exhortation reveals that the answer to all these questions is "Yes."  Machiavelli's critics have a stronger argument, as the sermon's teachings are inconsistent with Christianity.  In particular, the descriptions of sin and penitence offered in the Exhortation contradict Christian teachings on love, heaven, conversion, and Christ.  An examination of The Prince and The Discourses indicates that these contradictions are intentional.  The omission of important elements of Christianity's teachings leaves Machiavelli with new interpretations of sin and penitence that are useful to his political project.  Christianity, as described in the Exhortation, emphasizes the temporal realm and empowers man, and if practiced, this new form of Christianity would remove the obstacles to good citizenship that Christianity provides and that Machiavelli criticizes in his other works. Moreover, if practiced, Machiavelli's interpretation of Christianity would reduce the conflict between church and state, and this aspect of the Exhortation makes it interesting for contemporary study.

McKeen, Timothy: Wheeling Steel: Government Intervention and the U.S. Steel Industry [(10:45)(1B)(ASC-213)] Since Wheeling Steel was founded in 1920, the U.S. government has had an enormous impact on its operations. Not only has the government played a substantial role in the development of Wheeling Steel, but it has also affected the majority of American steel manufacturers. Various Presidents throughout the twentieth century have devised specific plans regarding the steel industry. The majority of these plans have distorted the free market and hindered growth of many steel producers. Government programs such as these have had a negative impact on the entire American steel industry and, in particular, have led to the decline of Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel. Until there is a global dedication to free market economics, the future of the steel industry in the United States will remain uncertain.

Mehlman, Tracey: Stereochemical Choice in Ni(II) Complexes [(1:15)(P 8)] Ni+2 exhibits several coordination numbers and geometries.  In the coordination of four electron pair donors, it may adopt either a tetrahedral or square planar configuration.  In its tetrahedral coordination, it is paramagnetic and shows in the proton NMR the broadened peaks with large chemical shifts characteristic of paramagnetic species.  In its square planar configuration, it is diamagnetic and, in its multinuclear NMR, demonstrates well-defined peaks characteristic of its bonding. We have examined the multinuclear NMR of NiCl2(P(C6H5)3)2, a tetrahedral paramagnetic complex, and prepared the corresponding square planar thiocyanate complex, Ni(SCN)2(P(C6H5)3)2, with substantial difficulty. The successful preparation of this complex has opened avenues of investigation of the 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR, as well as infrared spectroscopy and the preparation of derivatives containing phosphines with novel organic substituents.

Murtha, Jerrod: Correlations of Sexual Assault on the College Campus  [(1:35)(3A)(ASC-212)] This research attempts to offer a more in-depth analysis of the actual number of sexual assault cases on the campus of Wheeling Jesuit University as compared to the recorded sexual assault offenses reported to the Campus Security 2001 Annual Security Report.  The primary hypothesis for this study is that the existing data on sexual assault does not coincide with the actual sexual assault cases that may have occurred on campus.  Also, the cases that may have been reported to the proper authorities were not adequately noted in the Campus Security Annual Security Report. Further, according to the Routine Activities Theory the researcher hypothesizes that there will be a correlation between sexual assault and suitability of the target, as well as the absence of a capable guardian.  Participants for this study included all of the female undergraduate students from Wheeling Jesuit University, freshmen through senior classes.  Each female was given a survey through the campus mail.  From the conclusions, the researcher hopes to bring about the awareness of sexual assault incidents at the University, providing procedures for prevention as well as policy implications.

Myers, Keysha: Race and Religious Influence on Perspectives of the Criminal Justice System [( 10:45)(1A)(ASC-212)] This study examines the potential bias of race and religion on individual perspectives of the criminal justice system. The central explanatory concepts should provide a more ambiguous picture of how faith and race influence perceptions of the criminal justice system. The study utilized survey methods and descriptive statistics. The questions asked are used to develop a more concise perspective about the criminal justice system involving race and religion. In particular the findings suggest that those who have a favorable view of the performance of the police, corrections, and courts are more religious than those who do not, and that race is not a factor in this perspective.

Patterson, Siobhan: The Challenges for Women in Ordained Ministry [(2:15)(3A)(ASC-212)] The debate over women's ordination has been a significant dialogue in the Christian tradition throughout history. Although women in many Christian denominations presently have the opportunity to become ordained priests or ministers, access to ordination does not guarantee equal status to that of their male counterparts.  Women in ordained ministry, like women in many fields today, must overcome the "glass ceiling" effect and numerous stereotypes regarding gender roles. In order to examine the challenges that women in ordained ministry face, it is helpful to focus on particular denominations.  The presentation will focus on a comparison between the Episcopal Church, an institution-centered denomination, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), a congregation-centered denomination, to examine these challenges.  While there are many similarities in the challenges that all ordained women ministers face, regardless of their denominational affiliation, some significant differences have emerged in the challenges to ordained women in the Episcopal Church and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).  The variations in these challenges have resulted from the extreme differences in their roots and historical beginnings, the differences in the structures of the two denominations, and the differences in their acceptance of women into ordained ministry.  This presentation will draw from published materials and personal interviews to discuss the challenges that women in ordained ministry currently face in connection with these variations.  It will further examine the broader implications for women, denominations, and faith.

Patterson, Siobhan: A Waltz with William James and His Ideas on Religious Faith [(11:15)(2C)(ASC-215)] This essay will look to William James's lectures  entitled "Pragmatism and Religion," "The Will to Believe," "Is Life Worth  Living?," "The Religion of Healthy-Mindedness," "The Sick Soul," "Philosophy," and "Reflex Action and Theism" to examine the salvation of the world, the pragmatic meaning of belief in God, the right to believe the religious hypothesis, the positive meaning of religious belief, God's  characteristics, and the human person's relationship with God.  It will discuss James's ideas on these matters of religious faith and his understanding of God, and it will further explore the fruitful or valuable implications of embracing James's ideas in one's search to know God.  It is often easy for us to enter into a "wrestling match" of sorts with ideas of philosophers in our search for understanding.  Although this essay will point to James's weakness in that he neglects to analyze the creature/creator relationship between human beings and God, it can be thought of as a dance, or waltz, rather than a wrestling match, because it fully embraces James's ideas on religious faith.  In exploring the idea of religious faith, James asserts that while we have the option to disbelieve the religious hypothesis, we should seek to embrace it because it may lead to some desirable aspect of reality.  James places great emphasis on the importance of religious faith and further posits God as a being who is deeply involved with the world and in the lives of human beings.  His thought offers a distinct understanding that enables us to enter into a deeply personal relationship with God and leads us to a fuller realization of our potential as human beings.

Perry, Elizabeth: The Implication of Terrorism on U.S. Aviation Security 
[( 11:15)(2A)(ASC-212)] The purpose of this research was to look at Homeland Security, specifically, aviation security.  Flaws and/or improvements in the system were identified through an analysis of General Accounting Office (GAO) reports.  Documents issued by the GAO, preceding September 11, 2001 were compared to all of the documents after this date dealing with aviation security.  The researcher looked for weaknesses, improvements, or the lack of improvements, made to aviation security through comparisons of each GAO report.  A longitudinal content analysis using social artifacts was used, specifically the GAO reports, as the units of analysis.  Manifest and latent coding were used for the content analysis. The hypothesis was supported through an analysis of the data.

Phillips, Erik:  The Effects of Gender and Size Preference on Body Image  [(1:15)(P 9)] The effects of gender and size on body image were analyzed using an r-prime test, which is designed to measure whether one correlation is significantly different from another correlation. One-hundred three participants (38 males and 65 females) answered questions about human figure drawings that varied from very thin to either very muscular or obese.  The study attempted to determine whether men's ideal body image is influenced by what other men like than by what women like and vice versa.  Results showed that women's ideal body image on the muscular scale is significantly more like what they think men like than what they think women like.  On the other hand, results indicated a strong tendency for men's muscular ideal body image to be significantly more related to what they believe men like than to what they believe women like.  In addition, obese comparisons were not significant for men or women.

Reasbeck, Randall: Regenerable Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capturing 
[(10:05)(1C)(ASC-215)] The world is very dependant on fossil fuels for energy.  Approximately 80% of the U.S.'s energy needs come from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, or petroleum. A number of products are formed from this combustion, some being environmentally detrimental. Carbon Dioxide is one gas shown to present a hazard in the long-term, which results from it building up in the atmosphere.  CO2 is known as a major "Greenhouse Gas" which contributes to global warming.  Emissions of CO2 continue to grow along with our need for fossil fuels.  Sequestration is a process to permanently store the gas.  But in a general flue gas, 10% consists of CO2 and the bulk of the remainder being N2. Therefore, a technology is needed to separate and capture the carbon dioxide to make it accessible to sequestrate. The current technologies that are being studied to form concentrations of CO2 are pre-combustion, absorption using a solvent, membrane usage, and cryogenics.  These technologies are limited in one or more of the following aspects: cost, complexity, effectiveness in "real situations", and high amounts of energy required for the process.  A new technology is required in order to provide our energy industry with an efficient and cost affective alternative.  A novel approach of dry-scrubbing the gas with a sorbent is being examined.  By using a porous alumina substrate impregnated with magnesium (or an akali metal such as Ca, K, or Na) can not only adsorb and separate the CO2, but can also regenerate a concentrated stream for easy use in sequestration.

Ricciardi, Jonathan: Deterrence Theory and the Future Role of Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense [(10:05)(1B)(ASC-213)] In 1983 President Ronald Reagan introduced what critics referred to as a "star wars" missile defense system.  The initiative was to use new and sophisticated technology to design a defense shield that would be able to intercept incoming ballistic missiles that had been targeted at the United States or its allies.  The idea was to develop a technological solution to the ballistic missile problem, rather than depending on a political measure of diplomacy.  Today's National Missile Defense program would be made up of land-based interceptor rockets, radar stations, and a global network of satellites.  However, many opposed to the system question when a working system could be actually be in place.  This study examined the concept of deterrence in order to gain a better understanding of what the future role of the National Anti-Ballistic Missile Defense System will be.  Ultimately, three conclusions are reached.  The first possibility would be to replace the current policy of deterrence, which is based on the threat of retaliation, with a policy of assured survival.  A second possibility would be to enhance deterrence by reducing the United States vulnerability of enemy retaliatory forces.  However, the most likely scenario for the near future would be for the system to simply act to limit the amount of damage to the United States should Deterrence fail, by reducing the number of warheads that are able to reach U.S. soil.

Richer, Jeremy & Spencer, John: Identification of Toxic Chemicals in Glue Vapors Using GC/MS. [(1:15)(P 10)] Some household glues emit strong odors when first applied that may be hazardous to one's health.  This project uses state-of-the-art instrumentation to identify the vapors emitted by four commercial glues. Headspace analysis is used to sample the vapors and component separation and identification are accomplished using GC/MS.  In the electron impact (EI) mode of operation, the mass spectra of the separated compounds are identified via the NIST library.  This search program utilizes a stored library of mass spectra of 130,000 compounds to identify the mass spectrum of the sample.  The types of compounds that are released from the four commercial glues will be discussed.

Robbins, Brittley: Oil and National Security: Success or Failure of US Energy Policy [(12:15)(2A)(ASC-212)] The purpose of this study was to examine why United States oil consumption has risen instead of fallen after the oil embargoes in the 1970s.  Following the embargoes, policy makers and citizens alike viewed oil as a threat to national security.  As a result, it is reasonable to conclude that the US would want to decrease consumption in order to secure the nation; however, the opposite has happened as consumption has increased.  In order to understand why consumption has increased, this study analyzed the two significant energy policy acts addressing oil and national security:  the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992, that addressed oil and national security.  The goals of each Act were outlined and then measured to see if they were achieved. The means through which success or failure was calculated was based on vulnerability measures. The findings illustrated that while the US does consume and import more oil than it did during the oil embargoes in the 1970s, it is nonetheless less vulnerable to a disruption in oil supply.  Consequently, though consumption has increased, oil is not as much of a threat as it has been historically.  Moreover, the fact that the US is less vulnerable does not mean energy security should be diminished as an important national security issue.  Security of supply has been the main success of the legislation but demand still needs to be reduced.  As such, future legislation regarding oil should be directed at decreasing consumption.

Rosica, Andrea: Examination of the Use and Satisfaction of Prison Health Care Services at a Female Correctional Facility in West Virginia[(1:55)(3A)(ASC-212)] This project examined the health care systems within a female correctional facility in Wheeling, West Virginia.  The issue of health care was examined as well as the satisfaction felt by the women regarding the care they are eligible to receive.  Three different areas were examined.  These areas are the health care received in prison relevant to general health, gynecological and obstetrical health, and dental health.  Twenty-two female inmates completed a self-report survey, which included Likert-scale prompts.  The descriptive study was analyzed by averaging the data (basic descriptive statistics were conducted). Overall, the results showed that the women within the facility felt dissatisfied with their healthcare.  The study shows that the health care at this facility overall does not fill the needs of the inmates.

Ruetschle, Katie: Competing Predictions: Differential Association and Social Control Theories [(11:35)(2A)(ASC-212)] Social learning theories and bonding theories have a long history of vying over holding the superior explanation on the issue of deviancy.  The purpose of this research was to see which theory, Differential Association or Social Control has more significance in explaining deviant behavior or lack-there-of among Wheeling Jesuit University students.  There were three hypotheses tested.  The first one was that students' deviancy will be negatively related to the strength of their relationship to WJU.  The second hypothesis was students' are more likely to be influenced by their best friends' behavior rather than the friends' verbally communicated beliefs.  The last hypothesis was that in regards to deviant behavior, students' personal beliefs will have little effect on their actions.  The study was implemented using a systematic random sample.  Surveys were sent out to 335 full-time female and male undergraduate students at WJU with a response rate of thirty percent. There were 32 male and 69 female participants and the most frequent age of the respondents was 20.  The survey contained 26 general questions and 4 demographic questions. The questions pertained to students' attachments to the campus community; their attitudes concerning the merits of following school codes; and students' personal behaviors along with their friends' actions and attitudes.  The data was entered into SPSS in aggregate form and analyzed with descriptive statistic tests.  Although the results were inconclusive, it appears that Social Control theory has more significance in explaining the lack of deviant behavior among Wheeling Jesuit University students.

Schuler, Amanda & McCune, Alisha:  Effects of Visual and Auditory Feedback on Throwing Distance Estimation [(1:15) (P 11)] Sports play often involves making judgments, and producing motor movements, under conditions of decreased sensory information.  The present study assessed variables related to effective throwing distance, and estimations of such distance, under various sensory feedback conditions. Participants (n=40) were instructed to throw a weighted bag 5, 10, and 20 feet.  Within each distance, the feedback conditions were a) visual and auditory, b) visual, but no auditory, c) auditory, but no visual, and d) no auditory and no visual.  After each throw, participants estimated how far over or under they thought their throw had gone. Estimation errors increased with increasing distance.  Under conditions of decreased sensory feedback, males were more likely to believe that they overshot the distance, while females were more likely to believe that they undershoot the distance; in actuality, males and females were not different in their actual throwing accuracy.  Such results illuminate the importance of gender specific training feedback concerning how to gauge motor movements under conditions of decreased sensory information.

Scotka, Ryan & Das, Romit: Behavioral Animation Techniques on a Clustered Platform [(12:15)(2B)(D-239)] An offshoot of artificial life, behavioral animation, is a relatively new technique in graphics and artificial intelligence theory which applies principles of emergent intelligence to simulate the behavior of large systems.  Our project focuses on a specific type of behavioral animation known as flocking.  By specifying a simple set of rules, one can model seemingly complex social interactions such as flocking patterns of birds or the movement of crowds.  Our project takes flocking a few steps further by porting it to a Beowulf cluster, a series of off-the-shelf computers networked together to create a cost-effective multiprocessing platform, which spreads the computation involved across multiple machines, thus significantly decreasing runtime. To dramatize the runtime savings, our project compares the time used on a single-CPU (Pentium 4) machine with a cluster of 4 older CPU machines (Pentium II).

Scott, Jennifer: Stress Levels in the Foreign/Second Language Classroom [(3:30)(4A)(ASC-212)] The topic of my senior research project is stress levels in the foreign/second language classroom.  Accordingly, the goals of my senior research project were to identify the causes of high affect/anxiety levels in the foreign language classroom as well as identify methods to decrease such high levels.  My research led me to explore the nature of worry/anxiety in general and, more specifically, to the nature of language anxiety in the modern language classroom.  In addition, I conducted a random survey involving ninety-six people enrolled in various modern languages courses at Wheeling Jesuit University.  As a result of my research, I found that learning a foreign language is an intimate process because it draws upon one's willingness to be self-expressive.  With this in mind, I learned that more than a third of the students surveyed at Wheeling Jesuit University enjoy learning about the culture of their respective target languages.  On the other hand, with respect to what the participants like the least about learning a foreign language, the majority made reference to the difficulty in learning the grammar and speaking in the target language.  Finally, I learned that 66% of the people surveyed did not begin taking a foreign language until high school.  Based on my research, I concluded that language learning must be meaningful, fun and exciting.  Finally, I suggested that foreign language learning should commence at the middle school or even elementary school level.

Seago, Scott:  Toxicological Effects of Tyrosol, Tryptophol, and Phenylethanol on LLC-PK1 [(1:35)(3C)(ASC-215)] This study researches the toxicological effects of three higher alcohols found in beer, namely, tyrosol, tryptophol, and phenylethanol.  These higher alcohols were previously found to be toxic to the yeast cells that produce them.  This study however determines the effect of these higher alcohols on the mammalian cell line LLC-PK1.  This cell line is taken from the renal epithelial tissue of a pig, and has been partially transformed so that the regenerative ability of the cell continues past the expected number of generations a normal cell goes through. The LLC-PK1 cells are grown in alpha-MEM containing fetal bovine serum and antibiotics and are stored at 37 degrees Celsius with five percent carbon dioxide.  Once the cells become confluent and are seen to form domes, the higher alcohols are dissolved in ethanol and presented into the medium.  Addition of the higher alcohols is conducted after confluence is seen in order to be sure the higher alcohols simply do not hinder the growth process.  Cell viability and toxicological data were determined from a cell count using a hemacytometer.  Viability data was taken at different increments in order to determine the toxicological curve of each of the three higher alcohols.

Smith, Jeffrey: Augmenting Post-Exercise Recovery With Odorant Administration 
[(3:10)(4A)(ASC-212)] An often under-addressed aspect of athletic training, and even casual exercise, is the proper amount of time for "cool-down" and recovery.  However, when an ample recovery period is not available, the likelihood of injury and overtraining increases while athletic performance decreases (Szabo, Peronnet, Boudreau, & Cote, 1992). Previous research has indicated that odor administration significantly affects mood, motivation, and athletic performance.  The following study was designed to test the hypothesis that jasmine and peppermint will augment recovery by measuring the effects of these odorants on various factors.  Twenty athletes performed a modified Treadmill Stress Test and push-ups to exhaustion followed by a ten-minute "cool-down" period. During this "cool-down" period, participants were exposed to one of three conditions.  These conditions consisted of the presentation of jasmine or peppermint; or, in the control condition, no odor was present.  Following "cool-down," objective physiological measures, as well as subjective ratings, of mood, vigor, and performance were assessed.  Level of vigor was also tracked over the next 12 hours.  A significant difference was discovered in relation to heart rate, with the odor conditions producing a decrease in heart rate.  Such a finding supports the hypothesis that odorants may have a substantial role in naturally and safely expediting recovery from physical exertion.  Few to no other effects were found.

Smith, Jeffrey: When Senses and Cognitions Collide: Effects of Odors on Writing Samples [( 3:50)(4A)(ASC-212)] Based on previous research demonstrating odors have significant effects on the human nervous system, even in the absence of awareness to these odors, the present study examines whether the presence of an odors affects perceived quality of a written piece and the personal enjoyment of reading it.  One hundred eighty-nine participants were exposed to peppermint, lemon, dimethyl sulfide, or a non-odored contol condition while reading the piece, then completed questionnaires related to its quality and their mood.  Compared to the dimethyl sulfide condition, participants in the non-odor control condition rated their experience as more enjoyable, although the perception of quality was not significantly affected.
Smith, Jeffrey: Morality Empowers Law: The Necessary Relationship [(11:55)(2C)(ASC-215)] The quintessential proponent of natural law theory, Saint Thomas Aquinas, insisted that, without reference to reason and morality, human law possesses the nature not of law, but of violence.  In other words, without any allegiance to morality, law seems more an expression of promulgated power than justice.  Nevertheless, Robert P. George and John Finnis have presented a distorted view of Aquinas, insisting that law can truly be considered law without reference to morality and that, even in the absence of a relationship to morality, law retains its obligatory force.  However, an analysis of Aquinas reveals that denying the metaphysical basis of human nature and removing the explicit reference to a Divine Lawgiver renders natural law theory nonsensical and, quite literally, foundationless.

Stankiewicz, Kathryn:  Dithiocarbamate ligand exchange between In(III) and Fe(III) in solution [(1:15)(P 12)] Indium(III) and iron(III) form dithiocarbamate complexes, In(S2CNR2)3 and Fe(S2CNR'2)3 (where R and R' are organic substituents). Both complexes are labile in chloroform solution. Ligand  redistribution in solution: In(S2CNR2)3 + Fe(S2CNR'2)3=> In(S2CNR2)3-x(S2CNR'2)x + Fe(S2CNR'2)3-x(S2CNR2)x using 1H NMR. In some cases, e.g., R=benzyl and R'=ethyl, the redistribution is not statisical, with metals exhibiting preferential coordination to a particular dithiocarbamate ligand.

Tartamella, Christopher & Beppler, Benjamin: Error Analysis and Flat Fielding of the VATT CCD [(10:25)(1C)(ASC-215)] Quasars, or active galactic nuclei (AGN), are as luminous as 1000 galaxies combined.  The variability in brightness of these objects implies a source of power generation about the size of a solar system.  Such an enormous output from such a tiny volume implies that matter from an accretion disk is falling into a supermassive black hole.  The characteristics of the variability allows one to probe the geometry and structure of these accretion disks.  Since short-term brightness changes are 1%-2% of the overall luminosity, precision and accuracy of at least 1% are needed to provide meaningful empirical data to either support or refute competing models of AGN.  Data from the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (a 1.8 meter telescope) have been analyzed to determine the observational overhead and error sources that might affect a long-term project to study these variabilities.  High precision is attained by ensuring 250,000 counts in the object which corresponds to a random error of 1% in the luminosity.  The pixel to pixel sensitivity variations (3%-5%) on the charge-coupled device (CCD) can be reduced significantly when high-signal to noise flat field images are used.  It was concluded that it will take 20 minutes or more to collect one quality data point, implying that 6 objects should be tracked rather than 9 as was originally proposed.

Winschel, Christine & Cundit, Mark: Anomalous 1H NMR of Ni(S2CNRR')(P(C6H5)3)I (where R,R' = Et2 or Bz, i-pr) [(1:15)(P 13)] The square planar, diamagnetic 3d8 Ni+2 complexes, Ni(S2CNRR')(PR''3)X (Where R, R', and R'' are organic substituents and X  is a halide or pseudohalide) have been the object of research for several decades.  Much of this research has focused on the molecular dynamics of the complex: exchange of coordinated ligands and/or hindered rotation about the C-N bond of the dithiocarbamate ligand, S2C-NRR'.  Recent proton NMR on the new Anasazi Multinuclear NMR has confirmed earlier observations of anomalous proton NMR of Ni(S2CN(C2H5)2)(P(C6H5)3)I  and Ni(S2CN(CH2C6H5)(CH(CH3)2))(P(C6H5)3)I.  In the latter case, the 13C  NMR suggested the possibility of dissociation into  Ni(S2CN(CH2C6H5)(CH(CH3)2))2 and Ni(P(C6H5)3)2I2 or the presence of a Ni(S2CN(CH2C6H5)(CH(CH3)2))2 impurity.  This is easily decided by elemental analysis.  The six proton signals (rather than the expected  three, as seen in the analogous Ni(S2CN(C2H5)2)(P(C6H5)3)Br spectrum) of  the Ni(S2CN(C2H5)2)(P(C6H5)3)I complex may indeed be the result of  hindered rotation about the C-N bond, placing the CH2CH3 in fixed  positions either next to an I or a P(C6H5)3, rather than rotating freely about the C-N bond.

Witzgall, Megan & Doyle, Erin: The Effects of Increased Grade Walking on Gait Cycle Intervals  [(1:15)(P 14)] Due to the need for a greater understanding of different variables that influence the changes in gait cycle intervals, the present experiment was designed to study the effect of an incline surface on time spent in stance and swing phases.  Ten Wheeling Jesuit University Physical Therapy students (6 female, 4 male) aged 22 to 31 were asked to walk on a treadmill in 2 different conditions: 0% grade and 12.5% grade at a constant speed of 2.5mph.  Reflective markers placed at five joint positions were used as reference points to calculate phase percentages and total time spent during one gait cycle.  These points were interpreted by the Motus Peak Performance computer program via camera perpendicular to the treadmill.  Physical activity and lifestyle parameters were obtained with questionnaires.  The results of the series of t-tests showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two conditions on any of the variables measured.  This suggests that a graded surface is unlikely to have notable effects on gait cycle intervals.

Zelek, Jared: Z-crypt:  Cryptography meets "OLIH" [(11:55)(2B)(ASC-315)] Z-crypt is a new encryption scheme for passing secure messages between two users and is based on the behavior of cellular automata. Current encryption schemes are centered on two primary methodologies: symmetric and asymmetric keys.  Symmetric encryption uses the same key for both coding and decoding, so the key must be hidden from all third parties.  However, the key is usually easy to discover with computers today even if only the coded message is intercepted. In asymmetric encryption, different keys are used for coding and decoding.  A public key is usually a product of large primes that is used to encode a message.  A private key is the only way to decode the message and usually consists of the primes used to create the public key.  It is extremely difficult for a third party to break this scheme because factoring very large numbers takes a prohibitively long time. For example, factoring a number with 400 digits could take billions of years even with current technology. Z-crypt utilizes the random nature of cellular automata to create a coded message with a process similar to an asymmetric encryption scheme because it is difficult to break without explicit knowledge of the full key.  Cellular automata are systems or patterns, where finite sets of rules are applied over time.  It is virtually impossible to predict a future pattern without iterating each step in sequence.  This apparent random behavior is similar to the unknown distribution of prime numbers.

Zoladz, Phillip & Fronckoski, Robert: Orthonasal vs. Retronasal Odorant Administration and Athletic Performance [(1:15)(P 15)]  Previous research has shown that orthonasal administration of peppermint odor significantly facilitates athletic performance, mood, and workload.  Raudenbush, Meyer, and Eppich (2002) had 40 collegiate athletes perform a modified 15-minute treadmill exercise under each of four odorant conditions (peppermint, jasmine, dimethyl sulfide, or a non-odored control condition).  During testing, pre- and post- physiological measures were recorded, as well as subjective measures of mood (as measured by the Profile of Mood States {POMS}, McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971) and perceived workload (as measured by the NASA-Task Load Index {NASA-TLX}, Hart & Staveland, 1988).  Raudenbush and colleagues found that the presence of peppermint odor significantly reduces athletes' perceived workload and levels of fatigue.  Additionally, subjective evaluations of athletic performance and level of vigor were significantly greater in presence of the peppermint odor.  In contrast, a recent study by Raudenbush, Zoladz, Price, and Fronckoski (2002) revealed that retronasal administration of peppermint odor (via chewing gum) does not significantly affect athletic performance, mood, or workload.  In this study, 20 collegiate athletes performed a modified 15-minute treadmill exercise under each of five chewing gum conditions (peppermint gum, cinnamon gum, fruity gum, flavorless gum, or a no gum control condition).  Again, during testing, pre- and post- physiological measures were recorded, as well as subjective measures of mood (POMS) and perceived workload (NASA-TLX).  Results showed that no chewing gum condition, including peppermint, significantly affected athletic performance, mood, or workload.  The implications of such findings are particularly important because they suggest a differential effect of peppermint odor on athletic performance through orthonasal administration versus retronasal administration.