Student Research and Scholarship Symposium 2004 Abstracts

Explanation of the coding system: The following abstracts are presented in alphabetical order by first author. For the oral presentations, the information in the brackets includes the time of the presentation (e.g. 2:28), the session number (e.g. 2C), and the location of the session (e.g. D108). For poster sessions, the bracketed information includes the time of the session (e.g. 1:00) and the poster board number where the poster is to be found (e.g. P4).

Albert, Elvira: US immigration policy toward non-immigrants from the Middle East after 9/11 [(2:50) (3A) (ASC 212)] On September 11, 2001, nineteen foreign citizens from the Middle East conducted the largest terrorist attack on American soil. All of them entered the country as non-immigrants. Suddenly, highlighting problems associated with immigration became acceptable and as a result, an adequate immigration policy was an issue of national security. Consequently, much needed immigration reform seemed to be eminent. The policy changes that have been made in regard to non-immigrants from the Middle East after September 11 attack were supposed to improve the United Sates national security and keep America safe. My research examines the new immigration policies and discusses their effectiveness. At the same time, it looks back on American history at a time when the United States immigration policies were governed by national security. September 11, 2001 was first and foremost a failure of law enforcement, intelligence, and immigration procedures. The major immigration changes that have been implemented after September 11 attacks affected many people coming to the US as those already here. The Visa Express Program should have never been implemented, it made the visa processing too easy to exploit. The Special Registration targets non-immigrants from certain countries (Middle East), which makes this policy controversial: if the reforms are going to be meaningful, they must apply for everyone. Overall, Immigration control can make America safer, but only if pursued consistently, forcefully and justly. Even though the Immigration and Naturalization Service must reinforce its shields against those seeking to cross the border and to do the United States of America harm, it must preserve the openness to the rest of the world.

Banal, Brian: Allies' positions to the United States' hegemonic actions [(10:45) (1A) (ASC 212)] Presently, an important question is: will the United States be able to maintain its current hegemonic or unparalleled position in an international order, which is striving for multipolarity or a global system with several major powers? Understanding the position of United States allies is essential in determining whether or not the United States will be able to maintain its hegemonic position in the future. As a result, the purpose of this particular research is to understand how vital allies, such as Britain, France, and Germany, are reacting to the United States' hegemonic actions in Iraq. According to Stephen Walt, when states are confronted by a significant external threat, they may either balance or bandwagon. In order to determine which alliance a state follows, indicators of balancing and bandwagoning are created. The indicators are used to determine whether Britain, France, or Germany is either balancing against or bandwagoning with United States hegemony. These allies are recognized as either balancing or bandwagoning depending on each state's position to the current United States' led war in Iraq. However, it must be mentioned that these states could remain neutral and not balance or bandwagon with regard to the situation in Iraq. The results of this research confirm that Britain, France, and Germany each engaged in and are continuing to either balance against or bandwagon with the United States' hegemonic actions. The results were determined by analyzing these states' major policy statements during three different phases of the Iraq war. The balancing or bandwagoning strategies of Britain, France, and Germany are highlighted before the war in Iraq started, during its progression, and currently in its reconstruction phase.

Barker, Shannon: A comparison of hamstring flexibility using cyclic stretching vs. static stretching: Investigation of the short-term, intermediate, and long-term effects of cyclic vs. static stretching techniques on the hamstring musculature [(3:50) (3B) (ASC 213)] The current study investigated hamstring flexibility using cyclic stretching vs. static stretching. Specifically, the short-term, intermediate, and long-term effects of cyclic vs. static stretching techniques on the hamstring musculature were observed. Ten subjects (4 male, 6 female) from the Wheeling Jesuit University collegiate athlete subject pool participated in the study, which involved three intervention sessions. Each subject received both cyclic and static stretch, each of which was randomly assigned to either the left or right lower extremity. Measurements of ROM were taken pre and post intervention. A significant difference in pre and post ROM scores for cyclic stretching were found in comparison to short-term and intermediate effects. However, static stretching produced significant ROM gains in short-term, intermediate, and long-term measurements. Also, static stretching was found to be superior to cyclic stretching in comparison to intermediate and long-term effects. Therefore, the results suggests that both stretching techniques are effective at producing short-term effects while static stretching is more effective at producing intermediate and long-term ROM changes in hypoflexible individuals.

Beppler, Benjamin: Discrete Fourier Transforms of unequally spaced data points [(9:45) (1C) (ASC 215)] The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is used to determine the underlying harmonics in a digitized signal. The properties and limitations of the DFT are well understood for the case of equally spaced data points, with or without noise in the signal. For example, Nyquist's theorem indicates that only Fourier components with a frequency of one-half the sampling rate can be reconstructed, and even then problems such as aliasing can occur. This work investigates the case where the data are unequally spaced, a situation that arises when external factors do not allow the experimenter complete control of when to sample a signal. Several problems may arise once data become unequally spaced, such as missing too much of a signal to be able to accurately reconstruct it. In studying the light curves of astronomical objects, this situation arises frequently. Given our current research into the short-term variability of quasars, it is useful to study the limitations imposed on the analysis of data of an unequally sampled signal. Using computer generated data (but also a few light curves from actual quasars), this study explores these issues, and it offers recommendations for the collection and analysis of unequally spaced data points.

Briggs, Katharine: Study of HIV-1 RRE (AA) 72ap binding to rev-peptide and proflavine [(12:15) (2B) (ASC 213)] Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a retrovirus that functions by inserting its RNA into the cytoplasm of a host cell. The RNA is converted to a DNA double helix by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. This DNA enters the nucleus and is incorporated into the host cell's DNA. Viral replication begins. Rev is a protein that binds to a portion of the viral gene (env) called the Rev Responsive Element (RRE). Rev protein binding to RRE is essential for viral replication because it switches the virus to an active replication state. Since this is so, the development of inhibitors to block this binding may provide the basis for new drug therapies against HIV-1 infection. Previous research shows that a small molecule called proflavine acts as a Rev inhibitor by targeting RRE-IIB. This research project focuses on the interaction between proflavine and RRE (AA) IIB to analyze the binding affinity of this structural change. We did this through the use of Fluorescent labeling and X-Ray Crystallography. There was a variation of results. Some mimicked previous research results while others were confusing and require further research. We can conclude that there is a high binding affinity between RRE (AA) and proflavine. This implies that further research is necessary. Additionally, the use of proflavine as a drug therapy may be a possibility with more extensive research.

Brothers, Scott & Hepp, Aloysius: Decomposition pathways for copper(II) dithiocarbamates [(10:25) (1C) (ASC 215)] In our continuing research on precursors of metal sulfides useful in the fabrication of photovoltaic cells, we have examined the pyrolysis of some copper(II) dithiocarbamates. We have, for the first time, integrated results from a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and a thermogravimetric analyzer/Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (TGA/FTIR). The TGA/FTIR indicates that the Cu(S2CN(CH2CH3)2)2 undergoes pyrolysis in a single step yielding Cu2S as a product between 250 and 325oC Conversely, Cu(S2CN(CH2C6H5)2)2 undergoes pyrolysis in two to three steps between 250 and 325oC, yielding CuS as a product. The combination of GC/MS and FT/IR data allows the proposal of decomposition pathways for these two complexes. The decomposition of the Cu(II) complexes are compared to similar studies involving In(III) and Ga(III).

Brunetta, Carl: Rate equation for the methane reforming reaction [(1:15) (P 9)] The reaction of methane with carbon dioxide to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen is an important industrial process. The CO and H2 can then be converted to gasoline and diesel fuels by the Fisher-Tropsch (FT) Process. The FT process was used by the Germans during World War II to fuel their tanks and planes. A serious problem with both reactions is the deposition of carbon on the platinum catalyst. To determine when a commercial reactor has to be shut down in order to replace a catalyst, the kinetics of the reaction has to be determined. For this project, the kinetics parameters needed to derive the reaction rate equation will be determined in a continuous flow reactor. The design of this catalytic reactor and the operation of the gas chromatograph used for measuring the concentration of products as a function of time will be described.

Brunner, John: The positive effects of multi-media in the classroom [(3:30) (3C) (ASC 215)] My project will be a comparative study between the use of a multi-media (Flash) lesson verse traditional teaching in a classroom setting. The subject matter of the lesson will be a chapter of Spanish vocabulary words. I will create an interactive lesson and have Professor Zwack utilize it in a couple of her classes. The students will then be tested and the results recorded. Professor Zwack will then give the same quiz to students who received only a lecture on the same material. I will then do a comparative analysis of the results. During the presentation I would like to show the interactive lesson that I created as well as discuss the results of the comparison. My goal is to determine if the use of multimedia (audio and visual combined) in learning vocabulary is more effective than traditional lecture methods. 

Budd, Garrett: Survivorship of Paraleptophlebia moeren nymphs and analysis of ability to assimilate food resources [(1:15) (P 10)] The life history of 1 species of mayfly nymph, Paraleptophlebia moeren was examined during the end of summer and early autumn of 2003. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the survivorship and ability to assimilate food resources. Foods available were a mixture of CPOM and FPOM consisting of whole leaves, leaf fragments, branches and fragments of wood, and feces (from Pycnopsyche gentiles). Comparisons were made for nymphs in 4 groups to determine which food had a greater impact on survivorship and if those 4 groups showed a relationship for different foods assimilated by P. moeren nymphs. P. moeren nymphs were able to survive under laboratory conditions and showed a facultative relationship with food provided.

Burns, MaryAnna: The detection of false confessions through statement analysis: An empirical study [(10:05) (1A) (ASC 212)] This study was an individual effort to research, understand, and apply knowledge regarding the existence of false confessions within a controlled laboratory setting. A false confession is defined as implicating oneself for a crime that was committed by another. The researcher sought to answer three questions: 1) Can statement analysis be used to analyze and classify statements made regarding a mock crime in a laboratory setting? 2) If so, can the knowledge of analysis decipher a way to identify false confessions? 3) Is there a noticeable (content and analysis) difference in statements composed by male and female authors? Following a previously used procedural model known as the "mock crime" method, the researcher conducted an experiment involving students at Wheeling Jesuit University and analyzed their written statements (using the SCAN technique) regarding a ring being stolen out of a professor's desk. Twenty-nine college-aged participants partook in the experiment, (twelve male and seventeen female). The researcher was 59% accurate at identifying the treatment group for each participant, and 57% accurate at identifying the false confessions, specifically. The strongest relationship was found to be the use of pronouns and connections within the statements. Further statistical tests indicated that none of the findings were statistically significant. The researcher was 83% accurate at identifying the gender of the author based on the use of personal and impersonal pronouns. These results indicate that further testing is required to determine if the SCAN technique is applicable to mock-crime situations, or if the researcher's inexperience tainted the results. 

Chase, Courtney: Human limitations and the damnation of Doctor Faustus [(12:15) (2C) (ASC 215)] Doctor Faustus is a classic Renaissance drama, written by Christopher Marlowe, which illustrates the complex belief system that existed during the transition between the Renaissance and Medieval historical time periods. Renaissance culture flourished as the individual members of society eagerly went in pursuit of new and unfound knowledge. The very act of pursuing that knowledge, however, contradicted the long-standing belief system established during the medieval period. By constructing a single character, Doctor Faustus, Marlowe brilliantly portrays both the characteristics of medieval society and the contemporary Renaissance period in which he was writing. While some would argue that Faustus's pursuit of knowledge was nothing out of the ordinary for an individual living in Renaissance society, others may just as easily argue that Faustus emulates the sin of gluttony. The more power that Faustus is able to acquire through his use of Mephistopheles, the more skewed his judgment grows in his survey of his own actions. While indulging more and more in his sensual and material pleasures, Faustus also participates in the sins of pride and blasphemy. Perhaps the largest character flaw that Faustus develops is the failure to recognize and acknowledge the limits that occur naturally due to the conditions of human existence.

Clark, Christy: The effects of higher aromatic alcohols on beer flavor [(11:35) (2B) (ASC 213)] Beer Brewing is one of the oldest known practices of civilized humans and had profound effects on the food industry in the 1800s. Beer was the drink of choice during the periods of time where it was not safe to drink water. The fermentation of beer by yeasts was not known until the mid 1800s when Louis Pasteur found that microscopic organisms converted sugars to alcohol in the absence of air. The studies of beer have indicated that the yeasts not only ferment to produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen, but they also produce many other organic compounds that affect the taste and aroma of beer, mainly aromatic alcohols and organic esters. The purpose of this project is to observe the amounts of higher aromatic alcohols in beer and how the levels of higher aromatic alcohols affect its flavoring. The levels of phenylethanol, tyrosol, and tryptophol will be measured using five different strands of yeast. The levels of higher aromatic alcohols for each strain of yeast will be treated the same using the same set of variables, such as temperature, pitching rate, and wort composition. The five strands of Saccharomyces cerevisiae include California, German Alt, Bavarian Wheat, English Wheat, and Weinhenstehpan. This project plans to primarily prove if yeasts do produce varying levels of higher aromatic alcohols. There has been little research in this area and on the production of higher aromatic alcohols by yeast in brewing.

Decker, Ashley: For Christ's sake, fix them: Comparing Flannery O'Connor's "The River" and "Marks" [(3:50) (3A) (ASC 212)] This paper will attempt to compare the similarities between Flannery O'Connor's short story "The River" and the demonic account as recorded in Mark 5. It will attempt to compare the protagonist Harry of "The River" with the demonic in the aforementioned gospel.

Dent, Garry: Deactivation of platinum catalysts used in the CH4 + CO2 reaction [(1:15) (P 8)] The reaction of methane with carbon dioxide to produce a synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is an important industrial process. With the proper catalyst, CO and H2 can be converted into gasoline or many chemicals. During the reaction of CH4 + CO2 = 2 CO + 2 H2, carbon is deposited on the Pt/Al2O3 catalyst and reduces the production of CO and H2. Carbon deposition on catalysts is a common occurrence in many petroleum-processing reactions. To determine when a commercial reactor has to be shut down in order to replace a catalyst, the kinetics of deactivation have to be determined. For this project, the reaction describing this decrease in catalytic activity as a function of time will be determined. To calculate the activity decline due to carbon deposition, the extent of carbon laid down on Pt/Al2O3 will be determined. The TGA/FTIR instrument used for determining the weight of carbon deposit on the catalyst and corresponding decrease in product formation will be discussed. 

Duke, Ashley: A look at Mexico's history: Through the eyes of Diego Rivera [(1:15) (P 11)] Diego Rivera, a Mexican muralist and revolutionary, was the leader of an artistic movement that was greatly influenced by the country's history and especially its revolution. Rivera took great pride in his country and glorified its historical and political events in his monumental works. This project seeks to examine his work in detail through literary and visual analysis and to illustrate how he depicted telling historical truths in his artwork. Mexico's land, factories, peasants, working class, customs, and popular way of life will all be discussed in detail. The war of independence will also be an example of how his work served as a catalyst that brought him fame in both the artistic and the political world. 

Dziabiak, Sara: Optimal weight matchings in bipartite graphs [(10:25) (1B) (ASC 213)] Suppose a boss has n employees and n tasks to be assigned to those employees. Assuming the boss has evaluated the employees' abilities to accomplish said tasks, what is the optimal way the boss can match each employee to a task? The method to use is the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm, which provides a way to solve the optimal assignment problem in a bipartite graph. The algorithm relies on feasible vertex labelings and their corresponding equality subgraphs, and it utilizes the Hungarian Method of finding a maximum matching. The presentation will introduce the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm by way of a thorough example and it will be as accessible as possible to both mathematical and non-mathematical minds. 

Harris, Beth: Gypsy persecution and Spanish culture [(3:50) (3C) (ASC 215)] Deep rooted Gypsy discrimination still remains a part of Spain today, and yet Gypsy culture is claimed to be part of the country's main points in tourism. Gypsy persecution dates back to 1492. Gypsies, along with Moors and Jews, were a part of cleansing attempts of the Iberian peninsula on Non Christian groups. For the next three hundred years there were many laws forced upon Gypsies designed to eliminate them as a unique group from Spain. They were required to marry non-Gypsies, denied their culture and language, and their settlements were broken up. They were accused of child stealing, witchcraft, and causing the plague. The Gypsies were submerged into a seemingly permanent under class in which they remained until the late 1980s. Gypsies were persecuted throughout areas of Europe during the times of Nazi Germany and Franco's dictatorship in Spain. In the post-Franco era, Spanish government policy loosened and became more sympathetic towards the Gypsies. Tourism showcases Gypsy culture in spite of prior discrimination. According to the First National Gypsy Congress, 60 percent of the Spanish population shows racist attitudes towards gypsies, 40 percent say that they would not marry a Gypsy, and 35 percent of young people support the expulsion of all Gypsies from Spain. In spite of all this, Spanish culture remains a mix of Iberian and Gypsy traditions. Flamenco dancing is a well-known example of the ironic situation.

Harris-Anderson, Casey: The effect of two stressors: Methoprene and ultraviolet light on the growth and development of Rana Clamitans [(3:10) (3B) (ASC 213)] Deformities in amphibians due to different chemicals in the water are a result of human influence. A common chemical found in many areas is called Methoprene. As a consequence of agricultural urban and industrial development much of the soil and water used by amphibians is being altered. Methoprene is an insecticide used to control mosquito larvae. Methoprene is of significant concern due to the effects of retinoids that are formed when the compound breaks down after exposure to sunlight. The approach taken to test the effects of methoprene involved the use of two 2½ liter aquariums, each equipped with a reptile pump used for low level of water and a water filtration unit. Two vials of methoprene were placed under the UV light with a wavelength of 357.3. The first vial was exposed for 12 hours and the second vial exposed for 24 hours. The frog that was used is the green frog. The control group will not be exposed to any type of radiation or chemical methoprene. They will be used to compare growth rate of the tadpole and size. Observation will continue until tadpoles reach full adult state. Any malformations, including extra limbs or missing limbs, will be recorded and photographed. The exposure to methoprene will show that, although it may not seem to cause malformation in the way of missing limbs, many of the amphibians suffered from early mortality, problems swimming correctly, and the inability to lose their tadpole state and begin morphing into an adult. 

Hupp, Susan: Cloning and expression of RSP12, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase [(2:50) (3B) (ASC 213)] A challenge to the biological and medical communities has been to find a molecular model of flagellar functioning and assembly. Conditions that inhibit functioning of flagella and flagellar-like structures are known to cause upper respiratory tract diseases and male infertility. There are a number of parasites that use flagella to attack the human body. The radial spoke of Chlamydomonas reinhardtti is a structure essential for flagellar motility. The quest is to elucidate the assembly and functional mechanism of the symmetric T-shaped complex. One approach uses mass spectrometry to identify the unknown radial spoke proteins (RSP). RSP12 is a 20 kDA protein located in the stalk of the radial spoke. Analysis of RSP12 revealed the corresponding complete coding and genomic sequences. Further analysis with coding sequences revealed two alternative splicing forms of the protein. RSP12 is a homolog of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (ppI). PpI changes the conformation of proline residues in polypeptides by converting them from the cis to the trans form. Members of the ppI family are thought to play a role in the assembly of molecular complexes. To test the ppI function of RSP12, RT-PCR was used to obtain the full length coding sequence, which was subsequently cloned to the PET28a expression vector. The vector was transformed to BL21 cells for expression. Induction with IPTG confirms that the protein can be over-expressed in the cells. The protein was purified using a urea system. The next step is to purify the protein using a PGEX vector and the GST system.

Jones, Andrew: Perception of participants in a date rape situation [(11:35) (2A) (ASC 212)] Eighty-four male and female undergraduate students at a small, liberal arts college read one of four vignettes describing a potential date rape situation. The aggressor and victim differed across the four vignettes, the four conditions being: female aggressor in a lesbian interaction, male aggressor in a gay interaction, female aggressor in a heterosexual interaction, or male aggressor in a heterosexual interaction. After reading the vignette, participants were asked to write a paragraph completing the story, focusing on the thoughts and feelings of the characters in the story. They also completed demographic information and rated their sexual orientation using the Kinsey continuum scale. Participants' responses to the vignette were scored for the presence of these factors: escape, consent, rape, and violence. Results showed that male participants perceived significantly more violence than did female participants in the lesbian interaction. Male participants also perceived significantly more violence in the lesbian interaction than in the heterosexual interaction with the female aggressor. There were no other significant effects. This research adds to our understanding of perceptions of date rape in homosexual interactions.

Kermode, Jacqueline: Gender and ethnicity in two plays by Tomson Highway [(2:50) (3C) (ASC 215)] Tomson Highway has stated, "[…] before the healing takes place, the poison must be exposed." This theme resonates through his two most famous plays, The Rez Sisters and Dry Lips Oughta Move to Kapuskasing. Highway bravely confronts the reader with all the controversial, depressing, and even offensive facets of reservation life. Alcoholism, domestic violence, promiscuity, rape, misogyny, and even suicide are common themes in Highway's works. These are the dire effects of reservation life, of the Native people losing their traditional religion, language, and way of life. In both of Highway's plays, the poison is always a direct or indirect result of perpetual power struggles. The male and female characters that Highway creates struggle for both autonomy and a sense of meaning in their lives. Furthermore, the horrific consequences named above all relate to expressions and misconceptions of gender and sexuality. In both dramas, Highway uses the character of Nanabush, the mythical trickster figure, to reveal the gender/sexuality issues and the related negative effects prevalent in Native communities. When analyzing Highway's use of Nanabush in the two plays, Highway implies that the rigid distinction between males and females imposed on Natives by Western culture, in essence, perverted gender relations, and ultimately caused the problems of sexually-oriented violence and dysfunction listed above. However, the primary negative influence varies from consumerism to Catholicism within the two plays; the latter being, in Highway's view, a much more direct and destructive force to Native spirituality.

Kienzl, Krystal: The African American female bildungsroman [(11:15) (2C) (ASC 215)] A common cultural issue addressed by many twentieth century literary professionals involves the marginalized position of African American females within the modern social construct. Among the numerous writers fueling this literary movement against the oppression of black women exist two of its famous leaders, Zora Neale Hurston and, the woman she inspired, Alice Walker. Both Hurston's 1937 novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, and Walker's work, The Color Purple, published in 1982, share a common theme of female liberation amidst oppressive societal norms. More specifically, both texts feature an African American female protagonist who is forced to endure the hardships presented by a patriarchal, racist society yet ultimately finds redemption through a discovery of an independent self. My paper compares the maturation processes of the two protagonists then explores the shared spirituality of the authors that inspired such similar novels. 

Kozel, Natalie: Cultural and historical significance of the Salsa [(3:10) (3C) (ASC 215)] Despite the fact that many do not view dance as a type of history in Latin American countries, the Salsa has a significant and rich history. Different regions of the countries have varying types of this dance, however they are all similar. The costumes they wear hold a special place in the custom and each one has different meaning. The music is specifically chosen for this type of dance. Dance in Latin America is a large part of the culture, and it holds an impressive amount of importance.

Kratzer III, Dallas: The escape epiphany [(11:35) (2C) (ASC 215)] James Joyce expresses his own need to escape Ireland in order to be creative in both "The Dead," from Dubliners, and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Joyce creates Gabriel Conroy and Stepehn Dedalus as portraits of himself and uses these somewhat biographical characters to express his own problems with Irish society, which leads him to "the gradual realization of the necessity [to leave] his native land" (Daiches 197). Through Gabriel and Stephen's experiences during structurally similar dinner scenes, Joyce is able to illustrate his own problems with Irish society. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man reiterates Ireland's social problems explored in "The Dead" and builds upon the thematic character's experience to create the closure that "The Dead" had lacked. The epiphany of Stephen, shaped by the revelation of Gabriel, creates the overall movement of the book; moreover, it leads to Stephen's final realization, which is the same as Joyce's: he must escape Ireland for the sake of his creativity. 

Lilley, Sarah: Concussion history and cognitive performance among WJU sports teams [(1:15) (P 4)] The present study investigated the effects of receiving a concussion on cognitive performance. One-hundred and forty Division II athletes from various sports teams (men's soccer, women's soccer, men's basketball, women's basketball, women's volleyball, men's lacrosse, and women's softball) completed a baseline cognitive performance test using the Impact Concussion Management Program. In general, male basketball players had significantly lower scores in word memory in comparison to the other sports teams. Athletes with a concussion history performed many cognitive functions lower than those not having previous concussions. The number of concussions, however, did not play a role in worsening cognitive functions; those athletes having three or more concussions did not perform differently from those athletes having only one concussion. Such a result provides additional support for the importance of protecting athletes during sports activities, since only one concussion incident resulted in significant decreases in cognitive functioning.

McCombs, Kristin; & Yoskey, Kristy: Students' impressions of feminist professors in a hypothetical scenario [(11:55) (2A) (ASC 212)] We used the central traits approach commonly used in social psychology to measure college students' impressions of a hypothetical professor labeled a feminist. We measured college students' attitudes towards feminists using a twenty-two item questionnaire and investigated how these attitudes were related to the students' impressions of the hypothetical professor. This scale, developed by Smith et. al., measures individual attitudes toward feminists. The participants from both Wheeling Jesuit University and Bethany College were asked to read one hypothetical scenario, with a description of a feminist professor or a description that did not mention the professor being a feminist, and rate their impression of the professor on five different questions. The hypothetical professors taught literature, chemistry, or psychology because we thought the type of discipline might influence the students' impressions of a feminist professor. Therefore, the study involved six different hypothetical scenarios. The results showed that students' attitudes did not differ according to the professors' discipline, but there was a significant difference between the feminist professor as compared to the unlabeled professor in terms of level of caring and the amount of information learned from the professor as compared to other professors. Unlabeled professors were found to have a higher rating for caring than the feminist professors. Future research could include using actual male and female professors labeled as feminists, instead of hypothetical ones. Future research could examine changes related to students' attitudes towards feminists, e.g., watching a video showing blatant gender discrimination and then measuring students' attitudes towards feminists. 

McPherson, Amanda: A water quality analysis of Little Blue Run Lake, a coal fly ash landfill [(3:30) (3B) (ASC 213)] Little Blue Run Lake is a coal fly ash landfill used by the Bruce Mansfield Nuclear Power Plant in Shippingport, PA. The reason for the research into Little Blue Run Lake and its contents is due to the short distance between the lake and residential homes in Chester, WV. A water quality analysis was done using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emissions Spectrometer (ICAP-AES). This instrument, which is located in the Chemistry Laboratory at Von Roll WTI in East Liverpool, OH, was able to identify all individual ions found in the water of Little Blue Run, and their concentrations. The Ohio River and local tap water were both used as controls. It was found that the water contained high concentrations of many metals such as calcium, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, and over twenty more. It was found in the literature from research on other lakes with the same pollution, that most of these metals exist as oxides. Because all of the oxygen that plants and animals would need to survive is tied up as metal oxides, this lakes capability to sustain life is greatly reduced. The goal of this study is to show that Little Blue Run may be a danger to the residents of Chester, WV because of ground water leaching and to discover what effect the water's contents would have on animal life.

Moran, Antoinette: Obese Zucker rats are normotensive with or without increased fat intake [(11:15) (2B) (ASC 213)] Obesity is a serious risk factor for diseases that adversely affect the health of millions of people. Animal models help us investigate the mechanisms through which obesity affects disease processes. In the present study, we used the obese Zucker rat as an experimental model to study the interaction between diet and obesity on the development of hypertension. Sixteen female obese rats were divided into two groups: one group was fed a high fat diet (18.5%), the other standard rat chow (4.5% fat) for four weeks. Blood pressure was measured and urine samples were collected weekly. Although rats on the high fat diet gained more weight (490+13 g) than rats fed standard chow (422+10 g), the blood pressures for both groups were essentially the same throughout this treatment period. Urine glucose levels were the same for both groups suggesting that tubular function was not adversely affected. In contrast, urine protein levels were higher in the high fat group suggesting that glomerular function was altered by the high fat diet. Both groups were then given a 1% salt solution to drink for an additional 6 weeks. The blood pressure of the high fat group rose within a week and remained significantly higher than that of the group on standard rat chow for the remainder of the experiment. Results of this study suggest that, although a high fat diet does not have a direct affect on blood pressure, it does make the obese rat more susceptible to a salt-induced rise in blood pressure.

Myers, Jenah; & Materkoski, Shana: Does studying abroad improve one's social and professional skills? [(10:25) (1A) (ASC 212)] Studying abroad can improve one's social and economic professional skills. There are many benefits of studying abroad. We will explore the aforementioned in greater detail. When one studies abroad he or she gains confidence and independence by constant interaction from people of another culture. Because studying abroad is the most efficient tool for an insightful obstacle of a single language in a single culture. This experience will enable this person to achieve a more intense understanding of his or her own culture. With this day-by-day interaction with the foreign language one is exposed to how the culture nonverbally and verbally interacts with one another. A second language is becoming vital in a number of careers today. With studying abroad one can advance in the job market. One may also have a better understanding in meaningful communication between all nations, which has been difficult to succeed, but now there is a great urgency in all nations throughout the world.

Parrill, Erin; Hein, Emily; & Rasz, Julia: The effects of ethnicity on impression formation [(1:15) (P 6)] Impression Formation is based on physical, emotional, and intellectual characteristics of an individual. This study examined impression formation with regard to ethnicity, but limited the above characteristics. In this experiment, the hypothesis stated that participants would form different impressions of three teachers simply due to their ethnicity, African American, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern. Furthermore, the Middle Eastern man would receive lower scores due to the current strained relationships between the United States and Iraq. Participants in this impression formation study observed and responded by survey to one of the three teachers, each male and of a different race, presented to participants by photo and lesson plan. The lesson plan was identical for each of the three teachers. The photos included an African American, Caucasian and a Middle Eastern man. Survey data was collected from sixty participants who were randomly assigned to each group, making the each group total twenty participants. After reviewing the teacher's picture and lesson plan, each participant filled out a bipolar adjective survey to rate the teacher either positively or negatively. Results were calculated using an ANOVA and seven of the nineteen survey items showed a significant result. The seven significant results showed impressions of the Middle-Eastern man to be the least favorable. The results of the experiment strongly supported the hypothesis and indicated a bias towards Middle Eastern persons. 

Reed, Melissa: Service learning [(12:15) (2A) (ASC 212)] Service learning (SL) ties experience and reflection to course content. The TPP 333, Exceptionalities and Diversity, SL experience paired college students with adults with developmental disabilities to increase the students' understanding of these individuals with mental and/or physical impairments through a wellness program designed to meet the Health Promotion Objectives of Special Olympics. The purpose this study was to determine whether SL influenced the attitudes of college students about individuals with developmental disabilities. The qualitative study used interviews and document analysis as the methods of data collection. Ten students enrolled in TPP 333 either Spring 2002 or Spring 2003 were interviewed, and the taped interviews were transcribed, coded, and evaluated for themes. Triangulation of the data was completed through member-checking and inter-rater reliability. Several themes emerged: 1) Students developed a new awareness of the capabilities of adult partners, 2) Students learned something about themselves, 3) Participation in the SL increased comfort level of students, 4) Pre-requisite information would be beneficial. From these themes, it can be concluded that 1) SL increases awareness of the capabilities of adults with developmental disabilities, 2) SL increases comfort level of college students when interacting with their adult partners, 3) SL changes the attitudes of college students about these adults. Service Learning benefits college students by making them more aware of the capabilities of individuals with developmental disabilities. Even though the experience may be uncomfortable at first, repeated exposure to individuals with disabilities lessens the college students' anxiety. More information may minimize initial anxiety about the experience.

Robbins, Mary: Development of a clinical score for cystic fibrosis (CF) in the pediatric population [(11:55) (2B) (ASC 213)] An NIH sponsored clinical score for CF disease severity has been in use for many years. This score incorporates chest radiograph and spirometry results and is not adaptable to infants and young children. In clinical settings without Infant Pulmonary Function Testing (IPFT) and/or high resolution CT scanning, a reliable score would be beneficial to support treatment decisions. By creating a functional health index for pediatric Cystic Fibrosis that is independent of IPFT and CT results, treatment efficiency and cost effectiveness should be improved. Patients included in the study were clinically diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis by positive Sweat Chloride tests (level >60 mmoles/liter) on two separate occasions. All patients in the Columbus Cystic Fibrosis Center meeting the age criteria were included. As recommended in the literature, the study design was divided into two stages: 1) interrater concordance and 2) clinical correlation. Score sheets were given to raters (two pulmonologists and two nurses) with recent clinic visits. Problem categories for concordance were identified and more definition of the categories was provided for subsequent scorings. Clinical correlation was examined by reactivity, of the score to intervention, and validity, through a longitudinal examination of patient score data. Concordance data found the score to be reliable with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.92 for initial results and 0.86 for post category definition. Preliminary data for reactivity and validity demonstrated a positive correlation between score change and disease status change. Additional longitudinal data will be collected to determine usefulness of the score in a clinical setting. 

Schuler, Amanda; & Grayhem, Becky: Effects of hunger level, fasting, and body composition measurements on pain [(1:15) (P 2)] The present study was designed to investigate the correlation among body fat, hunger, and pain tolerance. These factors will assess whether hunger pains play a mediating role in regards to pain threshold and tolerance. Utilizing a within-subjects design, participants completed the experimental protocol both after completing a 24-hour fast and after consuming a meal until they were satiated. The order of the conditions was randomized. The protocol consisted of a cold pressor test, with submersion of the dominant hand and forearm into a 3-degree Celsius water bath. Ratings of pain were made on an 11-point scale every 30 sec up to a maximum of 5 min. In addition, several participant variables (i.e., height, weight, gender, body composition) and personality tests (i.e., Profile of Mood States, NASA Task Load Index, Food Neophobia Scale) were recorded. Significant effects were only found among the fasting and non-fasting conditions. While fasting, participants indicated greater pain tolerance (as measured by the total amount of time the participants were able to tolerate the cold pressor test), as well as decreased pain ratings over time. In addition, there was a significant interaction of body composition and condition, such that participants with larger body compositions were able to withstand the pain for a greater period of time under the fasting condition. These results provide additional support for the influence of both past pain experience and body fat level on mediating pain threshold and response.

Schuler, Amanda; Jones, Andrew; Murray, Amelia; & Fronckoski, Robert: The profile of personal attributes, personality, and stress on sexual arousal [(1:15) (P 3)] Previous research has shown a connection between personality and sexual activity, between personality and stress, and between stress and sexual arousal. However, these data interactions have yet to be studied concurrently. The present study was designed to construct a profile of the above factors, in addition to demographic information, in an attempt to predict what hinders or facilitates sexual arousal. Sixty participants completed three questionnaires regarding personality, stress, and sexual arousal. They also completed information regarding gender, class status, religious affiliation, and physical activity. Results indicate that personality, sexual arousal, gender, and class status were all related to stress. Freshmen have a significantly higher stress level than seniors. Furthermore, individuals with low levels of stress and more frequent exercise indicate a high level of conscientiousness, extraversion and openness while exhibiting low levels of neuroticism. Significant trends between sexual arousal and stress and sexual arousal and neuroticism exist, such that participants who scored high on neuroticism and sexual arousal have higher stress levels. Finally, females indicated higher levels of neuroticism and stress than did males. In combination, these findings provide a more comprehensive account of the interplay between the studies variables. Such information could be used to produce non-pharmaceutical adjuncts designed to enhance sexual arousal.

Schuler, Amanda & Rawson, Ashley: Effects of beverage flavor on athletic performance, mood, and workload [(1:15) (P 5)] Previous research indicates that the administration of peppermint odor can augment athletic performance and mood, and decrease workload demands. The present study extended those findings by evaluating athletic performance and physiological changes during the administration of flavored beverages. Utilizing a within-subject design, athletes performed a 15-minute modified treadmill stress test. At 3-minute intervals, 50 mL of beverage (peppermint water, unadulterated water, or Gatorade sports drink) were consumed. Pre- and post-testing physiological measurements were taken (blood pressure, pulse, oxygen concentration). In addition, ratings of mood (via the Profile of Mood States) and workload (via the NASA Task Load Index) were completed. No physiological changes were noted, however, both the peppermint and Gatorade sports drink conditions lead to greater ratings of personal performance and increased mood. These results provide additional support for the implementation of non-pharmacological methods to increase an athlete's performance and mood during exercise and/or competition. This study was funded by a grant from NASA to B. Raudenbush.

Strautmann, Kelly: The search for identity in Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon and Beloved [(11:55) (2C) (ASC 215)] African American author Toni Morrison is well known for her ability to write about the truth of what life is like for blacks in a white-dominated society. Morrison explores the meanings of freedom, whether blessed or troubled, in her two novels, Song of Solomon and Beloved, which focus on black families trying to live a normal life after the oppression they and their ancestors have faced during slavery. Milkman Dead, the protagonist of Song of Solomon, and Denver of Beloved, discover more about themselves and their culture throughout their lives. The two characters spend most of their youth living in seclusion from the outside world. Because of their seclusion, Milkman and Denver have the tendency to be very selfish individuals. As the problems in their immediate families worsen, the characters are forced to turn to their greater family: the African American community. The help the communities provide for Milkman and Denver is eventually what frees them from the overwhelming sense of oppression that has previously governed their lives. 

Tartamella, Chris: Looking for brightness variations in quasi-stellar objects [(10:05) (1C) (ASC 215)] Quasi-stellar objects (QSO), or quasars, have been observed to exhibit variations in brightness. Properly understood, these variations can help probe the geometry of these objects. While the properties of the variability have been well studied over time scales of months to years, brightness variations on shorter, intra-night time scales are less well understood. The Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT), a 1.8-m alt-az mounted telescope, is being used to measure intra-night variations for these objects. The light curves for four QSOs have been calculated and analyzed demonstrating variability of 0.02-0.04 magnitudes in both the B and R bands on time scales of a few hours. The data reduction was carried out using the IRAF package from the National Optical Astronomical Observatory (NOAO) and a collection of software developed in the WJU astronomy group. Potentially important systematic errors in the data reduction involving the choice of apertures have been identified and reduced, leaving random photometric errors at the 1.5%-2% level. 

Taylor, Katherine: The political and economic philosophy of Carly Fiorina, CEO of HP [(3:10) (3A) (ASC 212)] Carly Fiorina possesses many qualities needed in the business world to be a strong leader. She has morals in business ethics, capability to direct her company into the future and know-how when it comes to running a company. Fiorina portrays what a leader should be in the business world today. Fiorina joined Hewlett Packard in 1999 as Chief Executive Officer, which was a colossal event. It was the first time HP had hired a woman as CEO, had hired outside the company, and Fiorina became just the third woman to run a Fortune 500 Company. From 1998 to the recent naming in 2003, Fiorina has been declared "Most Powerful Woman in America" by Fortune Magazine. If one looks back on Fiorina's career from her start at AT&T, her years at Lucent and her current status with HP, it is clear that she has had many accomplishments that she can be praised for. However, up to this date, one takes precedence as her greatest achievement: the merger between HP and Compaq. Seen as the largest merger in the history of the computer industry, Fiorina went against the wishes of family members of the Hewlett's and Packard's to execute a plan that would either make her or break her. If she failed many thought it would be the end of Hewlett Packard. Fiorina refused to look negatively at the situation. When asked what she would do if the merger failed, Fiorina simply replied, "I refuse to speculate on it because it's not useful." 

Trimmer, Shannon; Simcox, Curt; & Barbato, Nathan: Gender differences in cognitive mapping [(1:15) (P 7)] Gender differences in cognitive mapping was tested for accuracy and also for confidence levels in both males and females. It was hypothesized that both genders would perform the tests with the same accuracy level but males would be over-confident in their ability while females would be less confident in their wayfinding strategies. This study compared male and female performance on a pointing-to-target task and their responses on three self-report measures related to mapping. These measures were a wayfinding strategy scale, a spatial style questionnaire and a spatial anxiety scale. Participants attempted to point accurately to several unseen targets of varying distances and then gave confidence estimates of the accuracy of their pointing. The participants were asked to perform the direction-pointing task for nine different targets. They then drew a line pointing in the direction of the target. The participants, after each direction judgment, then would rate their confidence level, on a ten-point scale, for their accuracy of pointing to each target. They also filled out three standardized cognitive mapping instruments, previously listed. Results of this study were that as the target got further in distance the errors for both males and females became more frequent. There was no overall difference in accuracy for the genders but confidence levels were different, males having higher confidence scores than females. According to our results, the outcome of this study was consistent with our hypothesis. Males overestimated their cognitive mapping ability while females underestimated their ability even though there was no difference in accuracy. 

Williams, Kirstin; Zelek, Jared; & Watson, Greg: VICS: Visitor Information Check-in System [(9:45) (1B) (ASC 213)] The Residence halls of Wheeling Jesuit University currently use a pen and paper system to sign in and out visitors. Converting this system to a computer implementation will reduce errors and increase the availability of information regarding visitors entering and leaving a residence hall. The Visitor Information Check-in System (VICS) will include a computer and card reader. A desk worker will insure that the escort and visitor swipe their IDs (cardinal card or license) to log their arrival or departure. By swiping an ID, information such as name, ID number, room number, escort, arrival time, and departure time are logged. Overall, VICS is a more reliable and efficient system, and it enhances a desk worker's ability to maintain an accurate log of visitors in the residence halls. The implications of VICS include better tracking of visitors, increased support for communication amongst Residence Life staff, added ease of maintaining records, and higher campus security within the residence halls. 

Wilson, Ian: Unveiling the unspoken discretionary powers of the Resident Assistant [(9:45) (1A) (ASC 212)] This descriptive and exploratory study shows that resident assistants (RA), much like police officers, utilize discretion when dealing with policy violations within residence halls. The research suggests a parallel between non-documented cases of policy violation by peer resident assistants and the police officers' blue curtain. Discretion is additionally related to resident assistant characteristics, resident personality, and the resident assistant's perceived control. The possibility for changing the resident assistant role is facilitated through the discovery of why they employ this discretionary power and what they view as the most crucial part of their job. By utilizing both surveys (n=49) and interviews (n=20), resident assistants show a desire to be perceived as role models, advisors, and community builders, rather than rule enforcers. 

Wilson, Jonathan: Case study of Robert Johnson: New political thought with roots from early African American communities [(3:30) (3A) (ASC 212)] The prospective graduates for 2004's Political and Economic Philosophy program are charged with the responsibility of producing a researched case study. The objective of this assignment is to assess the philosophy of political economy of a particular leader in corporate America, as well as how this philosophy manifests itself within the leadership of the individual. The subject of this particular case study is Robert L. Johnson, the founder/CEO of BET Holdings II and the owner of a new NBA franchise from Charlotte called the Bobcats. Johnson was chosen for this study due to his reputation as a remarkable member of the African American community. The African American community is a marginalized community within the United States of America since the founding of this great nation. This has been reiterated within the thoughts of great men like Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and W.E.B. DuBois. During the Reconstruction period of the United States of America, two influential men arose, Booker Taliaferro Washington and William Edward Burghardt DuBois. From the ideologies of two very distinct individuals emerges a type of political and economic thought from within the African American community that continues to develop today. These new philosophical ideologies are neither conservative nor liberal, rather they operate as distinct entities that are easily understood and accepted by marginalized members of society who yearn for entrepreneurship. Robert L. Johnson's ideals and philosophy coincides with this group of historically marginalized entrepreneurs, as well as the emergence of a new type of political and economic philosophy.

Zelek, Jared: Z-crypt: Controlling randomness [(10:05) (1B) (ASC 213)] Z-crypt is a newly developed encryption scheme used to protect information. It is based on the behavior of cellular automata, which apply a small set of simple rules repeatedly to produce complex and variable outcomes. In cryptography, repetitious schemes are easily broken due to their predictable nature. On the other hand, cellular automata develop highly erratic patterns which increase their value in providing a high level of security. Over time some of these patterns degenerate, resulting in a need to control their rich random behavior. Through the use of genetic algorithms, altered cellular automata are produced to maximize the randomness and therefore increase their usefulness for encryption. Furthermore, timely detection of repeated cellular automata patterns allows for alterations that sustain randomness. Over the past year, many specific cellular automata were produced and allowed to develop for extended periods of time. Through the analysis of this information, certain behaviors have been identified and anticipated, including "flat lining" and repeated triplet development. The ability to characterize such patterns makes this type of cellular automata a rich foundation for encryption. The implications of secure encryption techniques become more relevant everyday as society further relies upon the rapid growth of technology and information exchange. 

Zoladz, Phillip: Impact of the chemical senses on augmenting memory, attention, reaction time, problem solving, and response variability: The differential role of retronasal versus orthonasal odorant administration [(11:15) (2A) (ASC 212)] Past research has consistently noted a significant interplay between odors and human behavior. Multiple studies have shown that the administration of particular odorants can enhance athletic performance, sleep, pain tolerance, mood, and cognitive processing. In addition, odorants have a differential effect on human behavior, dependent upon route of administration (retronasal vs. orthonasal). The present study examined the differential effects of odorants administered retronasally and orthonasally on cognitive performance. During Phase I, 31 participants completed cognitive tasks on a computer-based program (Impact() under five "chewing gum" conditions (no gum, flavorless gum, peppermint gum, cinnamon gum, and cherry gum). During Phase II, 39 participants completed the same cognitive tasks on a computer-based program (Impact) under four odorant conditions (no odor, peppermint odor, jasmine odor, and cinnamon odor). Participants also completed pre- and post-test assessments of mood, and rated their perception of the required workload. Results revealed a task-dependent relationship between odors and the enhancement of cognitive processing. Cinnamon, administered retronasally or orthonasally, improved participants' scores on tasks related to attentional processes, virtual recognition memory, working memory, and visual-motor response speed. Implications of the present study are most promising in providing a non-pharmacological adjunct to enhancing cognition in the elderly, individuals with test-anxiety, and perhaps even patients with diseases that lead to cognitive decline. 

Zoladz, Phillip; Canter Raymond; Schuler, Amanda; Wilson, Ian; & Graham, Kristin: Effects of sensory deprivation on cognitive performance [(1:15) (P 1)] Previous research has found techniques of sensory deprivation to enhance relaxation, athletic performance, mood, creativity, and cognitive performance. While research concerning sensory deprivation has been limited in recent years, many of its potential benefits remain to be understood. The present study examined the effects of sensory deprivation on cognitive performance. In a repeated measures design, twenty-eight participants completed cognitive tasks on a computer-based program (Impact() after each of three conditions: dry REST, wet REST, and a no REST control. In the dry REST condition, participants laid on a bed in complete darkness with earplugs for 50 minutes prior to the cognitive test, in the wet REST condition, participants laid in a sensory deprivation tank filled with saltwater, with earplugs, for 50 minutes prior to the cognitive test; and, in the no REST control condition, participants received no treatment before completing the cognitive test. In each condition, participants rated their mood and perceived workload for the tasks after completing the test. Two-within (cognitive task, REST condition) ANOVAs indicated that scores of verbal recognition memory, attentional processes, working memory, and visual-motor response speed were all significantly lower in the dry REST condition than in the wet REST and no REST conditions. Additionally, two-within (cognitive task, REST condition), one-between (sex) ANOVAs revealed that scores of word memory for females were significantly greater than scores of word memory for males. Since most participants reported falling asleep during the dry REST condition, these results are particularly salient in understanding the negative effects that naps can have on cognitive processes.