Student Research and Scholarship Symposium 2007 Abstracts

Explanation of the coding system:The following abstracts are presented in alphabetical order by first author. For the oral presentations, the information in the brackets includes the time of the presentation (e.g. 2:20), the session (e.g. 2C), and the location of the session (e.g. ASC-212). For poster sessions, the bracketed information includes the time of the session (e.g. 12:45) and the poster board number where the poster is to be found (e.g. P4).

Blacker, Kara; Reed, Alex; Drake, Rosanna; Almeida, Jude: Body image satisfaction among intercollegiate females athletes using a scale of muscularity [(12:45) (P3)] In recent years it has become more apparent that disordered eating and unrealistic concepts of attractiveness have created a major problem in women, especially young female athletes. The rates of disordered eating among female, as well as male, college athletes has been on the rise. The present study administered a host of body image and eating oriented questionnaires to 61 female athletes at Wheeling Jesuit University. Track and Field, Soccer, Basketball, Cheerleading, Softball, and Volleyball were all represented. Questionnaires included a pictorial body image scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Eating Attitudes Test, the Eating Habits Questionnaire, and a food neophilic/neophobic scale. The means for body dissatisfaction for each sport were negative, implying that female athletes of all sports are at least somewhat dissatisfied with their bodies. Soccer had the lowest body dissatisfaction mean and Volleyball had the highest. Among the EDI sub scales there was a significant difference between Track and Field and Basketball on the scale of Bulimia, with Track and Field being highest and Basketball being lowest. There was a trend (.06) in Perfectionism between Cheerleading being the lowest and Track and Field being the highest. In addition, there was a significant correlation between 6 out of the 8 EDI sub scales and body dissatisfaction. Drive for thinness, interceptive awareness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness, and maturity fears were all correlated with levels of body dissatisfaction.

Blacker, Kara; Drake, Rosanna: Gender stereotyped distractions differentially influence pain perception and tolerance in males and females [(12:45) (P1)] Visual and physical distractions can increase human pain tolerance. In addition, differences in pain threshold and tolerance are noted between males and females. The present study examined the effects of gender-specific visual distractions on pain threshold and tolerance, mood, workload, and physiology. In a within-subjects design, 60 participants (30 males, 30 females) viewed one of two gender-specific videos (one male-an ultimate fighting video, one female-a dramatic love scene), or a non-video control condition. Pain was administered via a cold pressor test, to a maximum of 5 minutes, with pain ratings made every 30 seconds. Overall pain ratings were greater for females, and males indicated greater pain tolerance. Males viewing the male gender-specific video produced the lowest pain ratings. Lower levels of anger were found when viewing the male video in comparison to both the female video and non-video control. In addition, participants reported a significantly higher level of depression while watching the female video as compared to the male video. Physiological measures were recorded pre- and post-procedure in each video condition. Oxygen saturation was higher during the post-test. A trend revealed an initial increase in pulse rate while watching either video compared to the non-video control. Pulse and systolic blood pressure also decreased over time. These results indicate gender-specific, differential effects on altering pain perception between males and females. These findings suggest a gender and visual presentation interaction, specifically to modify pain distraction. This may be of particular benefit when applied to individuals suffering from chronic pain.

Blacker, Kara: The effects of sensory deprivation on creativity and cognitive performance [(12:45) (P2)] Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique (REST) is a method used to study how people are affected by a drastic reduction in aspects of sensory stimulation. This technique was used in the current study to examine its effect on creativity and cognitive performance. Creativity was assessed using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Cognitive performance was assessed using the ImPACT© Software, which tests multiple aspects of neurocognitive functioning. Thirty undergraduate participants will spend 1 hour in a flotation-REST tank before taking the TTCT and ImPACT tests. The participants also spent 1 hour sitting in an empty room as a control session. It is expected that participants will show increased creativity levels and increased levels of cognitive performance after being in the flotation-REST session compared to the control session, because of the potential relaxing effects of REST, which should help participants to think more creatively and quickly. The ability to help people increase their cognitive and creative skills through REST could be very useful in many different settings (i.e. school performance, test-taking, problem solving).

Blissit, Jessica: "The road to hell is paved with good intentions": The "Strange Career" of Booker T. Washington [(2:10) (3C) (ASC-215)] During the Gilded Age (1865-1915) Booker T. Washington was the unquestioned African American leader of his day. He was able to exert an influence on national affairs rarely equaled by other leaders, black or white. Washington's goal was the creation of a solid economic foundation to lead African Americans to eventual progress and acceptance. He believed that industrial education, training African Americans in practical trades and services, was the key to attaining this economic progress. As President of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, Washington funded his industrial institution by appealing to predominantly white benefactors. He used these funds gathered from whites to power his "Tuskegee Machine" of influence and, as historians discovered long after Washington’s death, to fund several radical causes. Washington's accommodationist philosophy, however, overshadowed all his other efforts to aid his race because it unwittingly contributed to the entrenchment of Jim Crow laws, the prevalence of lynching, and the demise of African American political rights during the late Gilded Age. He was undoubtedly dedicated to the cause of aiding his race to overcome the legacy of slavery that had placed them in such a dismal condition, but his misguided efforts only served to aid the force that sought to hurt African Americans.

Blissit, Jessica: Vote or die? Does it pay to participate? [(3:10) (3A) (ASC-212)] Every two to fours years a brutal "get-out-the-vote" campaign is waged against the citizens of this country. Despite the tremendous "war chests" of almost unlimited funding available to encourage voting, little results occur from this "war on nonvoters." With the exception of a few minor and temporary increases for major elections, the turnout of Americans to the polls has diminished remarkably in the last hundred years. Recent legislation in many states, including West Virginia, has sought to quell the sinking levels of the American electorate but has produced few results. As nonvoters become a larger and larger majority, one must wonder why some still bother to vote? This presentation will investigate whether there are rational reasons for voting and whether political parties are more geared to the voting population over the nonvoting population. It will also examine the characteristics of voters to analyze what, if any, differences exist between voters and nonvoters. This presentation will examine the benefits from the theoretical level, the personal level for the individual voter, and also tangible benefits on the collective level. Voter turnout continues to wane so the rationale for voting must be explored. Are many Americans acting irrationally by not voting or are many Americans acting irrational by voting? This presentation will argue that citizens will only vote if the benefits of voting outweigh the costs and that certain demographics have more potential benefits of voting available to them, because political parties focus more on the demographics that tend to vote more.

Bowden, David; Nolan, Jerry; Garlick, Kate: The impact of professor gender role on student evaluations [(12:45) (P11)] Undergraduate students read six descriptions of hypothetical male and female college professors, described with either feminine, masculine, or androgynous characteristics. The descriptions were made up of traits drawn from the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Twenty descriptors were used for each of the six conditions. The order in which the six conditions was presented varied randomly, according to a Latin Squares design. After reading the descriptions, participants rated the professors on 12 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale, related to the teaching effectiveness of the professor. Results were analyzed using a 2(professor sex) X 2(professor gender role) X 12 (teaching effectiveness statements) repeated measures analysis of variance. Overall, participants rated the androgynous professors more positively than both the masculine and feminine ones. However, masculine professors were rated as being the most competent in their discipline and the most intelligent. Feminine professors were rated as the warmest and most liked by students. In addition, students thought they would get the highest grade from a feminine professor.

Cessna, Trevor: Effects of video game play on anxiety, pain threshold, and tolerance in patients undergoing physical therapy [(10:20) (1B) (ASC-213)] Past research has shown that playing video games can lessen the ratings of pain that a person experiences. In particular, sports and fighting games can increase a person’s pain threshold and tolerance. To test these results in a controlled clinical environment, 30 participants are undergoing a physical therapy session as part of their normal injury recuperation process. During this time, they are also placed in one of three video game conditions: 1) playing a fighting game (Capcom vs. SNK 2 EOTM ), 2) playing a puzzle based game (Tetris WorldsTM), and 3) a control session, in which no game is played. During the sessions, the patients’ physiological indices are being monitored, and they are completing questionnaires related to mood, workload, pain, and anxiety. Each session lasts for approximately 30 minutes. It is anticipated that the fighting game will lead to decreased pain and anxiety during the course of the physical therapy program. These results are particularly salient regarding a non-pharmacological adjunct to pain control in a clinical patient population.

Cessna, Trevor; Reed, Alex; Hunker, Ryan: Effects of video game play on snacking behavior [(12:45) (P5)] Past research investigating the link between childhood obesity and activity participation, television viewing and video game use found children with higher BMIs played moderate amounts of electronic games, while children with lower BMIs played low amounts of electronic games. To investigate the possibility of video games being a distraction to food consumption in a controlled environment, 90 participants entered a testing room in which 10 ounces of Mars’ M&M’s® was placed next to a video game console. Participants were casually asked to indicate hunger level and instructed that they were welcome to consume the snack. In a between-subjects design, participants completed one of the following 30 minute video game conditions: 1) fighting game (Capcom vs. SNK 2 EOTM), 2) puzzle game (Tetris WorldsTM), and 3) no-game control. Upon completion, participants rated their hunger level and liking of M&M’s® and estimated the number of M&M’s® they had eaten. Participants then completed questionnaires related to task workload, mood, and normal/disordered eating habits. Actual consumption was recorded. Males ate more in the fighting condition in comparison to females; however, there was no difference in the males between the control and puzzle conditions. Females ate the most in the control condition, with no difference between the fighting and puzzle conditions. Playing either video game decreased both male and female participants’ ability to adequately estimate how much was consumed. Thus, video games of any type may lead to underestimating food consumption, and may contribute to decreased healthiness and increased weight gain.

Choi, DoBin: Preparation of novel dithiocarbamate ligands and their metal derivatives [(12:45) (P20)] The dithiocarbamate ligand, -S2CNRR', offers an almost infinite variety of compounds through the variation of its organic substituents, R and R'. We have chosen to focus on the influence of the neighboring C=O function to the N of the NCS2- moiety. The C=O group may be involved in steric hindrance, inductive effects and novel opportunities for structural rearrangements. Our experiments with isatin and a related compound led to disappointing results. Simplifying the organic substituents to 2-pyrrolidone led to results more consistent with earlier studies. Sodium 2-pyrrolidyldithiocarbamate was prepared but not isolated. It has been used in the preparation of tris(2-pyrrolidone-dithiocarbamato)cobalt(III) and tris(2-pyrrolidonedithiocarbamato)indium(III). The indium complex has not been reported before and will be subjected to a variety of experimental techniques.

Coley, Joel: Probing inside the geometry of quasars [(11:00) (2A) (ASC-212)] Astronomers believe quasars, also known as active galactic nuclei, are bright distant objects powered by the accretion of matter onto a super massive black hole. The short-term variability of these objects can be used to probe the geometry of the accretion disk. Red and blue light curves measuring the differential brightness of the quasar with respect to stars in the field were produced using data obtained at the Vatican Observatory. The time resolution of the measurements is approximately 10 minutes. Reduction of the data was achieved using the IRAF software package. This entailed removing the bias to restore linearity and flat fielding to compensate for pixel-to-pixel variation in sensitivity on the CCD chip. The photometric brightness was measured using the PHOT package. The data was parsed using a Python Program. Additional analysis of the light curves remains to be done. These data can potentially impact theoretical models of the quasar phenomenon.

Corkran, Courtney:Parasitic infection trends among Canis familiaris [(2:50) (3B) (ASC-213)] There are many different types of parasites that negatively effect mammals; specifically we looked at the parasitic trends found in canines. Parasitic infections can be very dangerous to an animal's health and also a very costly problem for industries. The economic loss to the California dairy industry from Neospora caninum, a parasite whose definitive host is the canine, has been estimated to be more than $35,000,000 per year due to failure to start lactation due to early abortion (Dubey, 1999). Another important reason to study these trends in parasitic infection is to protect the effectiveness of our dewormers. Over use of the deworming products that we have now could cause selection for resistant forms to occur in the parasites, and decrease the effectiveness of the medications that we are now using to treat these parasitic infections. By examining which animals are more susceptible to infection, we could test and deworm only specific animals who have a higher chance for infection, decreasing the chance of increasing drug resistance in the parasites exposed to medication. Using fecal analysis, we examined trends based on weight of the animal, the maturity level, breed size, and sex. There were no trends found based on the sex of the animal. However, trends were discovered when breed size and maturity levels were examined. It seemed that the less mature puppies carried more parasites more often than the adult canines.

Derrico, Jenna: Hawthorne's visions of evil: The fiend in his own shape vs. the dark heart of man [(11:40) (2B) (ASC-213)] Few people would assert that a human person, endowed with all the frailties and imperfections accompanying mortality, could be more frightening than a supernatural arch-fiend, hoofed, hooded, and hell-bent on leading human souls to damnation; however, Nathaniel Hawthorne, through The Scarlet Letter and "Young Goodman Brown," argues that evil is most hideous, not in a corporeal character of its own, but when embraced by a human heart, and he develops his characters accordingly. "Hawthorne's Visions of Evil" is an exploration of the hideousness of sin and vice within three distinct character-types: the archetypal devil, the unpardonable sinner, and the man incapable of accepting or controlling the evil in his own soul. The corporeal arch-fiend in "Young Goodman Brown" is perfectly suited to his supernatural role of tempter, yet his lack of any sympathetic connection with mankind leaves room in Hawthorne's works for demons far more hideous. Chillingworth, guilty of using his intellect to sin against a human heart in The Scarlet Letter, undergoes a physical transformation until he is as monstrous without as within, while the title character of "Young Goodman Brown" succumbs to his own evil impulses in the moral blackness of the forest until he becomes "the chief horror of the scene" (173). These men are confirmed in wickedness beyond even that of the Puritans‚ feared Black Man by the purposeful severing of the "magnetic chain of humanity" (Stein 106) and by committing the most loathsome of all evil acts: that of emptying their hearts of human sympathy.

Felbaum, Daniel; Koval, Kristen; Schmitt, Justin:Differential effects of chocolate and coffee scents on enhancing cognitive ability and clerical office work performance [(12:45) (P9)] Past research has shown that the consumption of chocolate and coffee, due to their stimulating qualities, have been effective in enhancing cognitive alertness and ability, thus increasing clerical office work performance. The present study assessed the effects of chocolate and coffee scent administration on cognitive ability and tasks associated with clerical office work. In a within-subjects design, participants completed three scent conditions: chocolate scent, coffee scent, and a non-scented control condition. Scents were delivered via a nasal cannula. After a 10-minute scent exposure (or no scent exposure in the control condition), participants completed computer-based neuropsychological tests assessing word discrimination, verbal memory, design memory, attention span, reaction time, problem solving, and response variability. They also completed clerical office work tasks, such as a typing test. Following each condition, participants completed surveys related to mood (Profile of Mood States), and workload demands (NASA-TLX). Chocolate scent was found to increase visual motor speed and impulse control, whereas coffee scent was found to improve typing accuracy and speed. Thus, these two scents differentially impact and enhance cognitive ability and clerical office work performance.

Felbaum, Daniel; Bloom, Jared; Cessna, Trevor; Drake, Rosanna: Effects of peppermint scent on diminishing smoking cravings and withdrawal symptoms [(12:45) (P7)] A variety of pharmacological methods have been proven effective in alleviating the symptoms of smoking cravings and withdrawals. The present study assessed a more natural approach by using peppermint scent as a potential craving and withdraw symptom inhibitor. In a within-subjects design, participants completed three conditions: peppermint inhaler (PI) use in lieu of smoking, control ad-lib smoking (CS), and abstinence from smoking (AS). While undergoing each of these conditions, participants completed a series of surveys three times each day. The surveys included the Profile of Mood States, Cigarette Craving Survey, Smoking Urges Survey, Cigarette Withdrawal Scale, Peppermint Inhaler Use Tally, and Cigarette Use Tally. Results indicated differences in smoking urges, smoking cravings, and smoking withdrawal symptoms, such that CS < PI < AS. This study provides evidence that inhaling peppermint can achieve similar, but not equal, results in curbing smoking cravings withdrawal symptoms when compared to actually smoking.

Felbaum, Daniel; Bayley, Robert: The comparison of visual and olfactory distractions on pain threshold and tolerance [(12:45) (P8)] A variety of distraction techniques (visual, physical, olfactory, etc.) have been effective in mediating pain perception and tolerance. The present study compared the efficacy of visual vs. olfactory pain distraction methods. In a within-subjects design, participants completed four conditions: peppermint scent, high arousal (HA) images, low arousal images (LA), and a control condition. Images were from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). After an 8-minute exposure, participants completed a cold pressor test and questionnaires assessing mood (POMS), task load (NASA-TLX), and anxiety (STAI). Physiological measurements (O2, pulse, BP) were monitored pre- and post-cold pressor testing. HA produced significantly lower pain intensity ratings than both the LA and the control condition. Peppermint scent produced lower pain ratings than the control and LA conditions. Both peppermint scent and HA promoted increased pain tolerance. HA images led to higher ratings of anxiety. Physiologically, visual stimuli led to lower systolic ratings, and there was an interaction indicating higher post systolic ratings between the peppermint and control condition. Finally, mean arterial pressure increased following the cold pressor task. Thus, peppermint scent and HA visual images are equally effective in managing pain and altering physiological measurements during a cold pressor task.

Gorby, William Hal: Lost in the 'haze' of forgetfulness: Rutherford B. Hayes's obscured reformist legacy during the Gilded Age [(2:30) (3C) (ASC-215)] The manner by which certain illustrious Americans have been perceived has forged the collective development of American historical memory. Even with countless numbers of influential men throughout the country's many dire twists and turns, the most remembered individuals were those who held the highest office in all the land- the Presidency. Collective understandings, shaped by various presidential rankings, have helped convey certain images of these men through various historical works. Have these rankings done justice to this elite group of individuals? Some were immortalized, some vilified, while others were lost to the "dustbin of history." One of these men was Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881). Living during a "gilded age," his achievements were marred by the events surrounding his election. Although the Compromise of 1877 overshadowed his reformist policies, Hayes was a man of impeccable character and an ardent American nationalist, who countered the weak executive image the public had of the Presidency during the Gilded Age. With his inauguration, a tenuous four month period subsided as many Americans were relieved that no armed rebellion resulted from the questionable election of this reform Republican from Ohio. Even with this sense of peace looming over the nation, Hayes's presidency was a tumultuous struggle between various sides over his reputation, his legitimacy as President, and the soundness of his policies. As will be shown, various textual historical interpretations have not done justice to Hayes's efforts to reunite the country after a dire period of civil war and reconstruction.

Graf, Rosanna: Creating/selecting a quality picture book [(10:00) (1A) (ASC-212)] Foci: There are three foci to this project. The first focus will be to gather and collate criteria for selecting quality picture books for young children. The second aspect will be to create a picture book and to assess its merits based on use by parents, teachers and librarians. An evaluation sheet will be created and distributed with the book. The third focus will be to create a helpful handout to be used by parents, teachers and librarians when selecting picture books to read to children.

Hacker, David: The game of appointments [(2:30) (3A) (ASC-212)] This paper investigates how much influence the presidential appointment process has on the court cases pursued by the United States Attorney's Office, particularly the Northern District of West Virginia. First, This paper investigates whether popular sovereignty, the views and goals of the general public, and norm theory, the idea that the president will not step out of the main focus of the American people, have acted as checks against the president‚s ability to make appointments solely to carry out his own agenda. Starting with the basic idea of norm theory and the appointment
process, this paper evaluates the guidelines that are in place to protect American citizens from presidential appointments based solely on the agenda of the president. This is essential to avoid appointments of radical cabinet members who would simply pursue the agenda of the president. The United States Attorney General is an appointed position who in turn directs the focus of other United States Attorneys, including the Northern District of West Virginia. This research then compares the political agendas of William Clinton and George W. Bush to demonstrate that the cases pursued during the given administration correlates with the political agenda of that president. My research shows that the president, although guided by the norm theory and the Senate confirmation, has a direct effect on cases that were pursued by the Attorney General and subsequently the Northern District of West Virginia. This has important implications because it suggests that the political elites, in this case the president, significantly influence this aspect of the judicial branch.

Hartman, Philip: Antimicrobial properties of alligator serum [(12:45) (P23)] We encounter pathogens every day. One class of pathogens, bacteria, can evolve to evade antibiotic treatment. With the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance, doctors are looking for new ways to combat pathogens. For insight into new treatment methods, we can study organisms that possess unique anti-bacterial properties in their serum. Alligators are aggressive animals that often exhibit open flesh wounds in environments abundant with pathogens. These alligators recover from said wounds without signs of infection. Previous studies have shown antimicrobial properties in alligator serum. The antimicrobial effects of alligator serum may be due activation of compliment proteins during the primary immune response. For this study, we studied the effects of alligator serum on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We have determined that alligator serum, at concentrations as low as 50%, can inhibit the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Further studies are currently investigating the role of complement proteins in this response.

Hencke, Stuart: A nation at bat: Baseball and Gilded Age America [(2:50) (3C) (ASC-215)] Throughout the Gilded Age many changes were taking place- our country as we know it was emerging. New American institutions and culture were being formed and gained popularity. One of these is baseball. How did baseball make the change from children's game to national sport? The answer lies in the Gilded Age. I track the development of the sport from its origins, to its organization, and its professionalization. Baseball serves a unique role in American history and this unique time in history serves itself to the rise of baseball.

Holmes, Noelle: Synthesis of dithiocarbamate catalysts for desulfurization of fuel stocks [(12:45) (P21)] Molybdenum and tungsten dithiocarbamate complexes prepared in our laboratories previously have shown promise as catalysts for the desulfurization of thiophene, a sulfur-containing compound found in crude oils. When MoO2(S2CNR2)2 was thermally decomposed, the remaining residue was active for converting thiophene to butene and hydrogen sulfide. Removing sulfur from compounds in crude oil is an essential pretreating step before gasoline and diesel fuels can be processed. Our research is focused on the preparation of new molybdenum and tungsten derivatives. Our first derivative has been MoO2(S2CN(CH2)4O)2, the morpholine derivative. This complex was chosen because of the ease of synthesis of the dithiocarbamate salt precursor, (H2N(CH2)4O)(S2CN(CH2)4O), which has been prepared. Synthesis of the molybdenum derivative has apparently been successful and we are attempting to obtain an analytically pure sample. This sample will then be tested in our continuous flow for desulfurizing thiophene.

Jose, Melanie: Thermogravimetric analysis studies of iron(III) dithiocarbamates [(12:45) (P18)] Several iron(III) dithiocarbamate complexes Fe(S2CNRR')3 (where R = organic substituent and R' = H or organic substituent)) have been synthesized and subjected to differential thermal analysis (DTA). In most cases, thermal decomposition occurs in one or two discrete steps, ending at 320oC, followed by a slow, gradual mass loss. While the residue appears to be an iron sulfide, based on the mass of the residue, its composition is a function of the organic substituents.

Keenan, Megan; Lewellen, Kayla: The perceptions of the gender roles of artists and scientists [(12:45) (P10)] This study examined how college students perceive the gender roles of two occupational groups. Forty undergraduate students were asked to rate two types of occupations, artists and scientists, on the degree to which they exhibit stereotypical feminine and masculine traits, using the BEM sex role inventory (BMSI). The BMSI consists of a list of 60 traits, 20 of which are stereotypically masculine, 20 of which are stereotypically feminine, and 20 of which are filler items. Scores ranging from -2.025 or lower are considered strongly masculine. Scores ranging from -2.025 to -1 are considered nearly masculine. Scores between -1 and 1 are androgynous, which means they reflect approximately equal levels of masculine and feminine traits. Scores ranging from 1-2.025 are considered nearly feminine and those from 2.025 and higher are strongly feminine. Results showed that students rated scientists as being nearly masculine and artists as being androgynous. Thus, scientists were viewed as significantly more masculine than artists. These results have implications for understanding bias in career selection, career counseling, and workplace evaluation.

Koerner, Peter John: Ultraviolet photoreception in pimphales promelas [(2:30) (3B) (ASC-213)] Ultraviolet (UV) photoreception is thought to be important in both shoaling behaviors and prey detection in many different species of fish. Many fish possess a fourth cone-type photoreceptor that can sense ultraviolet light. In this study UV absorption of multiple eye structures of Pimphales promelas, a member of the Cyprinidae family, were examined using spectrophotometry. Other members of the Cyprinidae family, such as goldfish, are known to possess UV photoreceptors, and it is predicted that P. promelas possess them also. However, UV light can damage the retina of many species of fish, and these species filter out UV light in different ways. Therefore, the first step of determining if P. promelas can use UV light is ensuring that UV light reaches the retina. Dissection of the eye structures was performed along with spectrophotometry. Tests were run for each eye of ten fish. Different eye structures were discovered to have different absorptions. The lens, cornea, and vitreous humor had absorptions comparable to that of the control. The retina did not show significant results. It cannot yet be determined if this species contains UV photoreceptors although there is evidence that UV light has the potential to reach the retina. These results do not support nor negate the hypothesis that P. promelas possesses UV photoreceptors.

Kotson, Evangeline: Effect of cortisol on insulin induced recruitment of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle in vitro [(12:45) (P22)] Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Treatment of Type I Diabetes mellitus requires insulin injections. Many factors affect the body's response to injected insulin. These factors include; food type, body build, physical fitness, illness, emotions, stress and even time of day and weather. Because of this, complications often occur during treatment due to the inability to calculate correct dosage amounts. In this study, we created an in vitro model of diabetes and investigated the role of biochemical stress on skeletal muscle cells treated with insulin. Specifically, we studied the effects of the corticosteroid hormone cortisol on GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle cells. Glut4 is a transport protein directly involved in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue. Cellular response was rated by the amount of GLUT4 recruitment to the cell membrane. A baseline amount of 2.5-5.0ug insulin per 1ml of Dulbecco's Modication of Eagle's Medium was administered over a 2 hour time period. Cortisol amounts ranged from 0.25-5.0ug per ml of DMEM. Hyper-cortisolemia has been shown to increase post absorptive plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as lead to insulin resistance in hepatic and erythrocyte tissue. We therefore expect a decrease in GLUT4 recruitment.

Madden, Julie: Sentencing outcomes: Juveniles vs. adults [(2:10) (3A) (ASC-212)] This thesis examines whether or not the age of an offender in criminal court affects sentencing outcomes. It will compare sentences of juveniles who have been transferred to criminal court with sentences of adults who commit the same offense. This paper will focus on the criminal court in Pennsylvania and will identify any significant differences that occur between the sentence lengths of the two different age groups. The hypothesis is that juveniles who are under the age of 18 will receive more lenient sentences than adults. This question is important because the process of transferring juveniles to criminal court guarantees that they are treated as adults. Juvenile court determines punishment based on rehabilitation and restitution while criminal court offers no such alternatives and the punishment generally results in a prison term. Transferring implies that juveniles receive adult-like punishments without the same leniency offered by the juvenile courts. Considering the differences in each court and the discretion of each different judge, disparity can occur between sentences for the same offense. If juveniles receive lesser sentences in criminal court simply based on their age, then the transfer process has not been a success.

McNamara, Jillian: Combating parasite resistance to de-worming medications in sheep and goats [(3:10) (3B) (ASC-213)] The parasites that infect sheep and goats around the world are becoming resistant to de-worming medications. If these resistant parasites reproduce and populate other areas, there will be no medication that will be successful in de-worming the ovine populations. These parasites must be combated with alternative treatments rather than the traditional de-worming medications to stop resistance in this tri-state area and worldwide. Samples were collected to see which parasites are resistant to de-worming medications, and fecal analysis of each sample was performed qualitatively and quantitatively. After fecal analyses are completed, alternative treatments will be introduced to a particular herd with resistant parasites. To date, Coccidia (protozoa) were the most prevalent in this area. Boer-cross goats contain the greatest number of types of parasites resistant to the traditional medications. This may be due to the genetic lineage of the goat, the prevalence of this breed in the area, and it may be due to the infestation of parasites in the grassy area in which the goat resides.

Meyers, Meghann: The effects of weight lifting on flexibility [(11:40) (2A) (ASC-212)] Physical fitness is characterized by cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and most importantly, a healthy diet. One important component of physical fitness that is often neglected is flexibility. Flexibility is the ability to move joints and muscles through their full range of motion. Flexibility varies greatly among females and males, athletes and non-athletes and young versus old individuals. In some sports, such as dancing, flexibility is a key component. A dancer's body is often characterized by excessive flexibility in the legs, hips and lower back. Although a dancer's body requires a high degree of flexibility, strength training must also be a part of a dancer's training. Often times, strength training is a neglected component of a dancer's training. It is commonly thought that extensive strength training may decrease a dancer's flexibility. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the flexibility of a dancer's hip and knee joint before and after a period of strength training. It is hypothesized that strength training will increase joint range of motion and will therefore increase flexibility. Nine females from St. John Central High School in Bellaire Ohio were chosen to participate in the study. All females are current members of the high schools dance team and participate in regular physical activity that involves dancing 4-5 times a week. This activity involves a large amount of stretching and cardiovascular exercise but does not typically involve strength training. Subjects are currently participating in a 6-week strength-training program. This program involves lifting three nonconsecutive days of the week on three weight lifting machines: the leg press, leg extension and leg curl. Subjects participate in a warm-up prior to weight lifting that involves three minutes of jogging and ten minutes of stretching. After lifting, subjects stretch again for ten minutes. Range of motion of the hip and knee joints was measured prior to the weight lifting portion of the study. An instrument known as a goniometer was used to measure range of motion. Range of motion measurements will be taken again at the midpoint and conclusion of the study. Comparisons will be made between the initial, intermediate and final measurements to determine if strength training had an effect on flexibility.

Nusbaum, Rebecca; Swart, Carrie; Duncan, Heather; Latz, Molly; Repicky, Katie: The relationship between attachment styles and reasons for seeking out friendships [(12:45) (P13)] Adult attachment theory has been used to understand adult interpersonal relationships (e.g., Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991; Hazan & Shaver, 1987); however, most of this research has focused on adult romantic relationships. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine whether individuals characterized by different attachment styles have different reasons for pursuing friendships. Those characterized by secure attachment were expected to seek out friendships in order to find help, intimacy, and reliable alliance. Persons characterized by fearful attachment were predicted to have no motives for seeking out friendships. Participants characterized by preoccupied attachment were expected to seek help and emotional security. Finally, those characterized by dismissing attachment were predicted to seek self-validation. Sixty-one undergraduates at WJU participated in the study (17 males, 44 females) and completed two questionnaires in a group setting: The Albany Measure of Attachment Style, and the McGill Friendship Questionnaire. The results supported the hypothesis that participants with secure attachment styles would seek out friendships in order to find help, intimacy, and reliable alliance; none of the other hypotheses were supported. Contrary to expectations, preoccupied attachment was negatively correlated with stimulating companionship and emotional security, and fearful attachment was negatively correlated with stimulating companionship, emotional security, and self-validation. Even though not all of our hypotheses were supported, the overall pattern of results clearly suggests that persons characterized by different attachment styles have different motives for pursuing friendships, and these motives complement the underlying emotional and interpersonal characteristics of the person.

Panutsos, Marcie: Harry Potter and the ambiguous nature of morality [(11:20) (2B) (ASC-213)] In literature, almost any posited utopia or magical "other" world inevitably proves to be no better than the ordinary world. Utopian stories simply present their authors with an opportunity to safely critique their own moral, social, or political cultures. Children’s literature authors, in particular, use this concept to illustrate the serious problems of the real world in a manner that is palatable to younger readers. By creating a fantasy world that is separated from the real world, the author can address questions of good and evil, prejudice, terrorism, and injustice while allowing young readers to feel magically removed from these issues. The appeal of fantasy lies in this basic principle-that authors can address serious issues in a form with which readers can more easily cope. J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series makes careful use of the principles of fantasy writing, but as the title character grows and develops, the boundary between the two worlds begins to blur and fade. As Harry approaches adulthood, the novels mature in both theme and content, and the issues become progressively more complex. Each subsequent novel deals in greater depth with the serious issues of character, choice, social justice, and morality. The lines between good and evil are no more clearly drawn than the lines between the intersecting worlds of magic and Muggle. The characters and the readers become increasingly aware that the problems of the world cannot be solved via magic. Rowling, like many fantasy authors, initially presents her protagonist with a paradisiacal substitute for his miserable reality so that she can subsequently deconstruct the dichotomy between the two worlds and prove that one can escape neither the problem of evil nor the necessity of choice.

Perera, Melanie: Thermal decomposition of In(III) dithiocarbamates: A combined GC/MS and TGA study [(12:45) (P15)] Several indium(III) and gallium(III) dithiocarbamate complexes with the general formula M(S2CNHR)3 (where R = organic substituent) have been prepared. These complexes have been studied both by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and thermogravimetric analysis with the objective of elucidating a facile route for the preparation of In2S3 for thermospray deposition. Volatile pyrolysis products from the decomposition in the thermoprobe of the GC/MS suggest substantial fragmentation of the ligand as evidenced by R2NH2+ in the mass spectrum of the decomposition products. No metal containing fragments were observed in the GC/MS of the decomposition products.

Porta, Matthew: The effects of endothelial cells on neurite outgrowth and proliferation in neurons [(2:10) (3B) (ASC-213)] Many neurological conditions, including stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, induce a hypoxic state in the brain leading to decreases in oxygen and glucose to neurons. Disruptions in oxygen and glucose availability can result in catastrophic neurological events. These include induction of oxidative stress, increased intracellular free-radicals, disrupted neurotransmission, and potentially, cell death. Neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, are believed to be complicated by hypoxic conditions. One potential compensatory mechanism against hypoxic insult is the induction of angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels results in: 1) secretion of angiogenic factors 2) activation of endothelial cells to form tubules, and 3) the delivery of oxygen/glucose-rich blood to compromised regions of the brain. Evidence has shown that angiogenic factors have neurotrophic effects in the brain. Therefore, induction of angiogenesis may rescue damaged neurons by directly inducing neuronal survival, proliferation, and outgrowth through responses to angiogenic factors. We hypothesize that endothelial activation will induce neuronal proliferation and neurite outgrowth. To investigate this we co-cultured SH-SY5Y cells with HUVECs. Following HUVEC exposure, we analyzed neurite outgrowth by double- and triple-label immunofluorescence microscopy (IFL). IFL analysis showed that HUVEC cells induce extensive neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells, with maximal neurite outgrowth observed at 72hrs. The effect of HUVECs on neurite outgrowth was most pronounced in the cultures pre-treated with retinoic acid (RA). Neuronal cells exposed to HUVECs without RA showed increased cell proliferation in response to HUVEC treatment. Neurite outgrowth was evident at 72hrs, but not to the extent of RA pre-treated cells.

Reed, Alex; Felbaum, Daniel: Effects of chocolate consumption on enhancing cognitive performance [(12:45) (P6)] Previous research has found that the nutrient content of foods aids in glucose release and increased blood flow. These increases have subsequently been implicated in augmenting cognitive performance. The present study assessed the effects of various chocolate types on cognitive performance, mood, and task workload. In a within-subjects design, participants completed the protocol under four conditions: 85g milk chocolate (total fat 26g, saturated fat 18g, carbohydrates 50g, fiber 2g, sugar 44g, protein 6g), 85g dark chocolate (total fat 34g, saturated fat 20g, carbohydrates 46g, fiber 6g, sugar 34g, protein 4g), 85g carob (total fat 20g, saturated fat 14g, carbohydrates 45g, fiber 11g, sugar 40g, protein 11g), and a non-consumption control condition. After a 15 minute digestive period, participants completed a variety of computer-based neuropsychological tests assessing word discrimination, verbal memory, design memory, attention span, reaction time, problem solving, and response variability. Mood and task workload were assessed via the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). Gender and age served as co-variates for the analyses. Composite scores for verbal and visual memory were significantly higher for milk chocolate than the other conditions. Consumption of milk or dark chocolate showed improved impulse control and reaction time. These findings provide support for nutrient release via chocolate consumption to enhance cognitive performance.

Reed, Alex: Effects of green tea on cognition, perceived workload, mood, and endurance [(10:00) (1B) (ASC-213)] Previous anecdotal reports indicate that green tea extract can have beneficial effects on overall health, cognitive functioning, and athletic performance. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether or not green tea extract can significantly impact cognitive functioning, endurance, perceived workload, and mood over time in a controlled experimental environment. The participants are 25 student athletes at Wheeling Jesuit University who are being tested over a 6 week time period. In a participant-blind administration, participants consume one capsule each day of the 6 week period that may or may not contain
green tea extract (experimental condition vs. placebo control condition). Cognitive functioning is assessed using the IMPACTTM neurocognitive software, while physical endurance is evaluated via a modified treadmill stress test and performing pushups to exhaustion. Perceived workload is measured by the NASA-Task Load Index and mood is assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The expected results of the experiment are that the athletes receiving green tea extract will show a significant improvement in mood, perceived workload, cognitive functioning, and endurance capacity over the testing period. The primary implication of the experiment is that a non-pharmacological substance can be used to enhance cognition, endurance and performance.

Reed, Alex: The Stereotypical Psychologist [(12:45) (P4)] Previous research has indicated that psychologists are viewed as less competent and as having less expertise in their field by the general public and by other academic professionals when compared to professionals in other science fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and physics. Psychologists have also been viewed as similar to psychiatrists but very different from scientists. The present study addressed whether or not college students would rate clinical psychologists significantly different from research psychologists and whether or not they would rate an "unspecified" psychologist as more similar to a clinical psychologist or a research psychologist. The participants' attitudes toward psychologists were evaluated using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The results of the study showed that the participants rated research psychologists significantly more masculine than both clinical psychologists and "unspecified" psychologists. The significance implies that when people hear the word "psychologist" they are much more likely to think of a professional in a clinical setting as opposed to a professional in a research or academic setting, which excludes many sub disciplines of psychology and professional activities of psychologists.

Ruckman, Christopher; Erfort, Justin: Computer graphics with Wings3D and OpenGL [(10:00) (1C) (ASC-315)] We have been researching advanced Computer Graphics techniques utilizing 3D modeling software, paint applications, and OpenGL. Some areas of interest include modeling techniques, texture and bump maps, special effects using particles (particle systems), and motion. These techniques are implemented in several phases: 3D object creation utilizing a modeling package, texture design utilizing a painting program, and, finally, mapping the texture to the 3D object. OpenGL provides the facility by which to code special visual effects, such as lighting and shading, motion, and other phenomena that add realism to a digital scene. We will be demonstrating a variety of these techniques and describing the tools and processes we used to produce our results. Applicable uses for our research include 3D scenery, animation, and video game concepts. Some of the models/scenes that we will show include a spacecraft, humanoid creatures, and a functioning Roman fountain.

Skrzypek, Steven: Juvenile mediation: Failure is not an option [(2:50) (3A) (ASC-212)] The juvenile justice system has over the years been a questionable forum for dealing with offenders. The fact of the matter is that it not only mistreats offenders, but victims as well. This system places itself in the slot of the victim and gives itself the right to give suitable punishment to the offender under their laws and regulations. Restorative justice has created a way that helps victims and offenders to reach an agreeable outcome, therefore creating a system that would satisfy both sides of the predicament. The technique they use is called victim-offender mediation and through the use of this program victims and offenders meet each other in a controlled environment in order to hear each other's stories in order to give better understanding of the action taken against the victim. Satisfaction and completion of the juvenile mediation program are complementary for the program, but its not always satisfying for the victim and the offender. In some cases the juveniles going through this program fail to meet the requirements of the criminal justice system reflecting poorly on the mediation program. There are no set reasons for why this occurs, but we can try to understand these noncompliant individuals so that we may better treat future juveniles with better results.

Sinick, Scott: Surface gravity waves: Resonance in a fish tank [(11:20) (2A) (ASC-212)] The introductory physics lab curriculum typically includes two classic experiments on wave motion. In one, transverse waves driven by an electromagnetic vibrator travel back and forth along a stretched string. In the other, longitudinal sound waves, driven by a tuning fork, travel back and forth inside an open cylindrical tube filled with air. Although the wave speeds may be on the order of 102m/s, at resonance, the standing waves that result are stationary, permitting wavelengths to be easily measured. The periods of oscillation, however, are on the order of 10-2s. They are too small to be measured in an introductory laboratory so the frequencies must be given. In this work an inexpensive and uncomplicated alternative to these two experiments was investigated. Surface gravity (SG) waves traveling back and forth along the length of an inexpensive, 10-gallon, glass aquarium were studied. These waves travel at speeds comparable to a person walking. Motion on this scale allows for distances to be measured with a meter stick and for times to be clocked with a stopwatch. For several water depths, standing waves were excited by hand using strips of styrofoam. Several resonant modes were studied starting with the fundamental. Experimental values of wave speed were obtained from measurements of wavelength and period of oscillation. Theoretical values of wave speed were obtained using the SG wave dispersion relation. The agreement between experiment and theory was usually better than 0.5%.

Smider, Amanda: Birthday Cards [(12:45) (P24)] The basic idea of my project will follow the idea of the "birthday problem" using probability. The "birthday problem" asks how many people it takes for there to be a 50% chance that there is a repeat birthday. My variation on this problem will be used with a deck of cards. In my poster project, I will use a standard deck of 52 cards, pick a card at random and then record that card. After that I will shuffle the deck and pick another card at random. I will repeat this until I have randomly selected 10 cards. The goal of this project is to prove the formula that tells us that if someone picks at random 10 cards from a deck, that the probablity of having a repeat card is about 60%.

Smiljanic, Danijela: Analysis of High and Low Octane Gasoline Using GC/MS [(12:45) (P19)] Gasoline's are a mixture of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers from 5 to 12 and totaling approximately 200 compounds. An important property for gasoline is efficient combustion which is indicated by an octane number. At petroleum refineries, the reforming process is used to convert low octane compounds, such as n-alkanes and cycloalkanes to higher octane compounds, such as aromatics. These higher octane hydrocarbons are blended into gasoline resulting in octane numbers ranging from 86 to 94. It is postulated that gasolines with higher octane ratings (93 octane) will contain more aromatic compounds than lower octane straight chain hydrocarbons (87 octane). The results from analyzing low and high octane gasoline using GC/MS will be discussed.

Smith, Tonya: Magnetic susceptibility determinations and synthesis of novel Iron(III) Dithiocarbamate complexes [(12:45) (P14)] Iron(III) dithiocarbamate complexes exhibit unusual magnetic moments between the normal limiting values of 2.2 ìB and 5.9 ìB. These compounds are synthesized from the reaction of a dithiocarbamate salt (derived from a parent secondary amine (HNRR’ (where R and R’ are organic substituents) and carbon disulfide) and an iron(III) compound, frequently ferric nitrate or ferric chloride. We have synthesized several of these complexes. We have investigated iron(III) dithiocarbamate complexes derived from several novel parent secondary amines and measured their magnetic moments. Good agreement was found between our values and those reported in the literature. In addition, we have measured the magnetic moments for iron(III) dithiocarbamates which have not been reported previously. These determinations provide additional insight into the bonding in these unusual complexes.

Temple, Kayla: Investigating the hydrogenation of unsaturated aldehydes and related compounds [(12:45) (P16)] The purpose of this project is to measure the heats of hydrogenation for a variety of unsaturated aldehydes. Enthalpy and direct calorimetric measurements will be performed on (E)-2-nonenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, and (E)-2-heptenal. The empirical data from this investigation will be compared to theoretical data. The results will also be compared to a computational study of the energetics of hydrogenation of aldehydes with a collaborative group at another university. The study will be expanded by modifying the carbonyl function via reduction, oxidation, and amination. The changes in the heats of hydrogenation of these modifications will be related to theoretical values.

Thorton, Corey: Operation torch: Anything but a total success [(3:10) (3C) (ASC-215)] In my presentation I will discuss the allied invasion of North Africa during World War II. I will cover the preparation of the amphibious invasion, and the problems that occurred during the preparation. I also will cover the problems the occurred during the invasion, and discuss how Operation Torch helped prepare the allies for Operation Overlord (more commonly known as D-Day). As a final point I will dispel the myth that the invasion went off with out any problems and show that planning was faulty.

Wells, Josh: Proliferators of poison: The flow of sin throughout the community of guilt in Hawthorne's the Scarlet Letter and "Rappaccini's Daughter" [(11:00) (2B) (ASC-213)] The works of Nathaniel Hawthorne continually address the existence of sin and its ramifications on human existence. In discussing sin, Hawthorne employs various metaphors in order to convey its presence, especially in the case of its poisonous existence in The Scarlet Letter and "Rappaccini's Daughter." Hawthorne's rendition of the tainted heart in The Scarlet Letter and "Rappaccini's Daughter" reflects the view stemming from his Puritan past and one of his common overlying themes that sinful deeds can lead to a permanent poisoning of that heart and of any children created as a result of the unity of contaminated hearts, thus further blackening the community of guilt. Several scholarly individuals reflect the same viewpoint about Hawthorne's treatment of sin, exploring the flow of sin from one heart to another. Some scholars explore how the sin flows from the unpardonable sinner to the object of the unpardonable sinner's experiments, and others explore the flow of sin from the experiment to the offspring of the experiment. In either case, the unpardonable sinner serves to blacken the community of guilt, creating a garden of doomed souls with contaminated hearts. By studying Hawthorne's treatment of sin as both physical and metaphorical poison and its effect on those with whom it comes in contact, the reader can trace the flow of sin throughout any community in Hawthorne's works and can clearly understand why Hawthorne's Puritan roots cause him to equate sin with poison.

Wright, Tim: Achievement levels of elementary and middle schools in the NES Program [(12:45) (P12)] The NASA Explorer Schools (NES) program is sponsored by NASA and targets poorly performing elementary and middle schools and/or those who are financially challenged. It began in 2003 with the goals of increasing students' performance in math and science and their awareness of job opportunities in science and engineering. Of the schools that participated in the program, usable data were available from eleven elementary schools, ten middle schools, and one middle school district. In order to determine the program's effectiveness, achievement levels of participating schools were compared as close to the year in which they began as possible and as close to 2006 as possible. To measure a school's success, report card data were collected in math and reading (or language arts, when reading scores were not available), and difference scores for both math and reading were computed. The higher the difference score, the more change exhibited by the school. In particular, the percentage of students in a school who scored in the proficient or advanced ranges was calculated. Results were analyzed using a 2 (elementary or middle school) x 2 (math or reading scores) mixed design analysis or variance. Results showed a close to significant (p = .06) interaction, which suggests that after using the program, elementary students make greater gains in reading than middle school students do, while middle school students make greater gains in math than elementary students do. In addition, middle school students make greater gains in math than in reading, following their entry into the program. This study suggests possibilities for modifying the NES program curriculum in order to strengthen math skills in the elementary grades, and reading skills in the middle school years. Even though the design and data collection were limited by differences in state-to-state assessment procedures, this study serves as a beginning model for measuring school success on a national level.

Zoelle, Alex; Lopez, Eric: Deactivation kinetics for the catalytic dehydrogenation of alkanes [(12:45) (P17)] The kinetics for the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane and isoalkanes over Pt/alumina and Pd/alumina catalysts were investigated in a contiunous flow reactor and in a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The reaction rates, rate constants and activation energies were determined for each catalyst from data from the flow reactor. The TGA was used to measure the weight of carbon depostion with time. The dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to aromatics is a major reaction in the Reforming Process used by Petroleum Refineries to produce high octane components for gasoline blending. Cyclohexanes are found in crude oil and along with n-alkanes have poor combustion properties. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanes to benzene results in an increase of octane from approximately 80 to 110.