Student Research and Scholarship Symposium 2010 Abstracts

Explanation of the coding system: The following abstracts are presented in alphabetical order by first author. For the oral presentations, the information in the brackets includes the time of the presentation (e.g. 2:20), the session (e.g. 2C), and the location of the session (e.g. ASC-212). For poster sessions, the bracketed information includes the time of the session (e.g. 12:45) and the poster board number where the poster is to be found (e.g. P4).

Arango, Alexis; Parker, Maranda and Sluciak, Elizabeth: The Effects of Crime Severity and Background Environment on Neurotic Personality Type. [(1:00)(P3)] Many theories have been derived concerning why people engage in criminal behaviors. The present study examines how personality and background information correlate with criminal intent and crime severity; Inmates from correctional facilities in West Virginia will complete the Big Five personality test and provide demographic and personal history information. It is predicted that individuals with neurotic personalities and harsher backgrounds will have committed more severe crimes. An important goal of this research is to help correctional facilities develop rehabilitation programs for the inmates. Also, this research may help social psychologists recognize behaviors that tie into criminal behavior, which will help to better, develop prevention programs in order to lessen crime rates.

Bellville, Kevin: Physical and chemical stresses affecting the successful repopulation of Justicia Americana. [(11:00)(1C)(ASC-215)]Previous studies have shown Justicia americana to be a ubiquitous species, inhabiting many shallow rivers and streams of the Eastern United States watersheds. Because Justicia has disappeared from many streams it has become a prime candidate for restoration. Benefits of restoring Justicia populations include providing habitat, stabilizing substratum, and utilizing excess nutrients in the water. Justicia plots were in Middle Wheeling Creek prior to being transplanted in 1990. Since then the five originally transplanted plots, plus new plots that have arisen have been monitored by taking stems counts of each plot and by measuring the length and width of the plot to determine coverage area. Water quality at each site was tested to determine chemical conditions by calculating dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and temperature. Nutrient analysis was also preformed on water samples from these sites to indicate whether the nutrient makeup was similar to areas where J. americana was thriving. Physical conditions were tested by measuring canopy cover, water depth, velocity and distance from the bank at each plot. The goal of this experiment was to correlate J. americana growth and survival with the physical and chemical conditions in streams. Of the physical and chemical conditions tested, only canopy cover and the distance of each plot from the bank showed correlation with measures of biological success. These seem to be the only two determining measured factors in the successful restoration of Justicia populations.

Belsito, Amanda: The Questionable Use of Saline in the Patient Suctioning Procedure [(1:00)(P19)] Every year many people die from pneumonia contracted in the hospital setting. Many times these deaths can be avoided with proper care. This study will examine the technique of saline instillation while endotracheal suctioning, which may have a connection to the increasing cases of nosocomial pneumonia. I will collect information through a check-off sheet completed by nurses or respiratory therapists in the units, which will show whether a patient has been suctioned with saline or not, how the patient is suctioned (open vs. closed), and the amount of sputum received. The data will be collected from patients in the ICU unit in Ohio Valley Medical Center throughout the month of February. The study will also examine patient files and cases where the patient has had suctioning with saline and has contracted pneumonia. After all sheets have been retrieved, they will be compared in order to pattern and possibly improve patient health care in the future.

Bowman, David: Varying Endotracheal Tube Securement [(1:00)(P20)] Endotracheal tubes are commonly used for mechanical ventilation in respiratory compromised patients. In order to be properly ventilated, it is important to ensure that the endotracheal tube is properly secured. There are several different types of tube holders, and tube securement techniques used in the clinical setting. My research is intended to determine which holders and methods offer the best form of securement. To determine this, I will attach an Endotracheal tube to a force probe measuring device. I will then measure the different forces required for extubation with each securement method. The method that requires the most force to cause extubation also offers the best form of securement.

Bugaj, Lydia: Groupthink and the U.S. Invasion of Iraq in 2003 [(3:00)(2B)(ASC-213)] This paper examines the following research question: Does 'groupthink' theory explain the Bush cabinet's decision to invade Iraq in March 2003? By analyzing President George W. Bush and his advisors, the researcher explains how the style of decision-making which Bush and his advisors partook in the months leading up to the 2003 Iraq invasion may constitute groupthink. Groupthink is a small group decision-making theory made famous by Irving Janis. Through citing scholarly journals, speeches, briefings, newspaper interviews, and books, the researcher considers Janis's characteristics of groupthink-conditions that foster groupthink, symptoms of groupthink, consequences of groupthink, and methods of preventing groupthink-with regards to the decision to invade Iraq. This paper contains information explaining how Bush and his advisors may have fallen prey to groupthink in their decision-making.

Choi, DoBin: The Antibacterial Effect of Organic Compounds from Common Food Sources on Streptococcus Mutans [(1:00)(P7)] Dental caries, the second most common disorder next to the common cold, is a disease where acidic metabolic wastes of oral bacteria damage the dental tissues. A gram-positive bacterium, Streptococcus mutans, is identified as one of the main microbial species that cause dental caries in humans. In fact, the viable count of S. mutans in saliva is directly proportional to the number and prevalence of dental caries. As an effort to reduce dental caries, many types of antibiotics, such as erythromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, have been administered in vivo as well as in vitro to determine the most effective means to control S. mutans. Although these previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of certain antibiotics as a valid treatment for dental caries, drug resistance due to bacterial mutation has always been an underlying warning against the excessive use of antibiotics. However, in recent studies, several organic compounds found in common food sources have been identified as potent antibacterial agents, such as catechin, tannins, isothiocyanate, anacardic acid, and allylic polysulfides. The antibacterial effect of these five naturally occurring compounds against S. mutans was examined by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Upon acquiring the MIC of each compound, the researcher is to expand to examining the antimicrobial effect of the various combinations of these substances. Thus, findings of this study may lead to developing a more natural and possibly safer method of maintaining the healthy oral biota and, eventually, reducing the occurrence of dental caries.

Cottrill, Halie: Women in Baseball [(10:20)(1B)(ASC-212)] The All American Girls Professional Baseball League was one of the many ways in which women assumed dominant positions in the United States during World War II. Not only did the League participate in patriotic rituals, it also boosted the country's morale and served as a perfect example of the mobilization of the home front. The All American Girls Professional Baseball League was an experiment in professional baseball conducted by Chicago Cubs owner Philip Q. Wrigley during the Second World War. It was active in the Midwestern part of the United States from 1943 to 1954. Labor shortages throughout the war brought nearly four million women into the labor market. While it only lasted to 1954, the League played a successful role in serving as a replacement of ajor league baseball during the interwar period. In 1948, at the peak of the League's popularity, nearly one million fans came out to watch the games. The League incorporated patriotic practices into its games and ultimately contributed in boosting the morale of the citizens of the United States and giving them a sense of hope. By contributing to keeping the country's spirits up, the AAGPBL indirectly kept the United States in the war. It is an unconventional example of how America used women to mobilize the home front.

Cowley, Christina: The Relationship of Manganese in the Drinking Water of Southern West Virginia with the Surface Enamel of the Tooth[(1:00)(P8)] As shown by previous analysis of drinking water in southern West Virginia, several heavy metals are present in amounts much higher than mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Little research has been conducted to determine the effects these heavy metals have on dental health of residents consuming this water. Manganese is a heavy metal present in the drinking water that also has been linked to the formation of biofilms on teeth which can help to cause periodontal disease. By determining if manganese can be absorbed by the enamel of the tooth from external contact with solutions containing this element, future research can determine what effect the presence of manganese in tooth enamel can have on dental health. In this project, teeth collected from a local oral surgeon were immersed for two-week and one-month periods in solutions containing various concentrations of manganese. The enamel was etched off and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the concentration of manganese present into the enamel. Results are pending. If a significant amount of Manganese is found to be absorbed in the enamel of the tooth, further research can determine if this heavy metal is a contributing cause of periodontal disease for people in southern West Virginia.

Dami, Kaleigh: Podosome Formation by the Dominant Positive AFAP-110 Variant [(10:20)(1C)(ASC-215)] The actin filament associated protein AFAP-110 is an adaptor protein that links protein kinase C (PKC) and Src to actin filaments and is involved in podosome formation. Podosomes are organized sites of actin filaments that are located on the cell membrane and mediate attachment between the cell and the extracellular matrix (EMC). These structures are involved in cell-signaling pathways such as Src and are thought to play a role in cancer metastasis. To investigate the role of AFAP in podosome formation, we transfected the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y with GFP-AFAP fusion protein vectors coding for the wild type, dominant negative and dominant positive AFAP variants. Cells that had taken up the transfected DNA express the GFP tag and align on actin filaments, indicating that the fusion protein is functional. Cells expressing the dominant positive variant displayed bright fluorescent focal points on their cell membranes, identical to podosomes observed in other cell types. These foci were less apparent in cells transfected with the wild type AFAP construct and completely absent in cells expressing the dominant negative AFAP variant. Work is underway to determine whether these structures are podosomes, and if so, the understanding of the molecular mechanism by which active AFAP-110 triggers podosome formation could lead to a successful invasion suppressor which could inhibit cancer metastasis.

Del Vecchio, Marisa and Alkire, Holly: A Comparison of Conventional Imaging with 67Ga-Citrate to PET/CT Imaging with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose for the Detection of Lymphoma in Pediatric Patients [(1:00)(P27)] Hodgkin's and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the third most common disease affecting pediatric patients today. These patients are brought to the Nuclear Medicine Department for the detection and staging of a possible malignancy, and for follow-up after the diagnosis and treatment of lymphoma. To make this detection possible, radiation must be employed in the form of the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to the pediatric patient. This is a concern due to the increased radiosensitivity of children when compared to adults; therefore the protocols and dose amounts must be adjusted accordingly. Prior to the development of PET/CT imaging with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose, 67Ga-Citrate was the radiopharmaceutical and protocol of choice when dealing with lymphoma patients. Today the more conventional imaging with 67Ga-Citrate is being used less frequently, being replaced by PET/CT imaging with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose. This article reviews existing literature to compare and contrast these two approaches for the detection of pediatric lymphoma, and to provide evidence in support of the shift from conventional imaging with 67Ga-Citrate to PET/CT imaging with18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose.

Dent, Jonathan, Irwin, David and Moses, Scott: Health Information and Tracking System (HITS) [(10:00)(1A)(ASC-315)] The senior project of the WJU Computer Science class of 2010 is a device called the Health Information Tracking System (HITS). HITS is a wearable device utilizing multiple sensors that track various aspects of health, such as heart rate, blood oxygen levels and temperature as well other information such as distance and speed. The device is worn during a workout and records this information at regular intervals, and afterwords the user can plug the device into his/her computer and track the aforementioned attributes at any given time during their workout. This is accomplished through the software accompanying the device, which uploads workout session data and stores it on the user's computer. By storing subsequent sessions, the user can determine how much progress he/she are making in a given area or how his/her workout is affecting his/her wellness. Our presentation will cover the approaches we took to develop both the device and software, from the initial conception and planning to the implementation and, ultimately, the finished prototype. Finally, we will end with a demonstration of the working HITS device, showing how all our planning and hard work comes to fruition.

Dille, Sarah and Beck, Rory: Electrochemical Investigation and Synthesis of Novel Metal-Dithiocarbamate Complexes [(1:00)(P14)] Metal dithiocarbamates are complexes of metal ions and the uninegative dithiocarbamate ligand, S2CNR2, where R is an organic substituent. The properties of these complexes are dependent on the identity of the metal ion and the nature of the organic substituents on the dithiocarbamate ligand. Dithiocarbamate complexes have applications in a wide variety of fields including photovoltaic devices, catalysts, and lunar dust stimulants. In this project, the electrochemistry of several novel dithiocarbamate complexes will be studied. Cyclic voltammetry will be performed on the complexes to determine their reduction/oxidation potentials and to investigate the nature and stability of the red/ox products formed. For stable products, bulk coulometry will be used to synthesize sufficient quantities of the products for additional analysis. In the case of products that are air sensitive, bulk coulometry will be performed in a glove box. Moderately stable products will be investigated using spectroelectrochemistry.

Ekobena, Jermaine: Justicia americana Repopulation in Wheeling Creek [(10:40)(1C)(ASC-215)] Justicia americana is an American Water-willow native to North America that forms large colonies on shorelines of rivers and streams. It is found mostly on the eastern part of the United States. Justicia americana is transplanted into streams and reservoirs that are in need of habitat improvement. When transplanted, Justicia Americana improves habitats by stabilizing substratum and also utilizing excess nutrients in the water. In 1999 a 300 meter section of Wheeling Creek was dredged, and the Justicia americana population was severely impacted. Since then, Justicia in Wheeling Creek have been counted each year to determine their rate of growth. The growth rates were obtained by taking stem counts of each plot, and also measuring the plot length and width in order to determine the coverage area. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the location and growth of Justicia americana in order to determine how long it will take for Justicia to repopulate Wheeling Creek.

Foutty, Megan; Fleischmann, Keith; Wright, Tim: Effects of Sham Intoxication on Physical Performance Using the Nintendo Wii Fit [(1:00)(P1)] The present study examined the effects of sham intoxication on balance via the Wii Fit video game for the Nintendo Wii console. Participants underwent two conditions. In the experimental condition, participants consumed four, twelve-ounce, non-alcoholic beers. They then played a series of four balance games on the Wii Fit, including Ski Slalom, Soccer Heading, Tight Rope Walk, and Table Tilt. In the control condition, participants filled out the Big 5 Personality and Aggression survey prior to playing the Wii Fit balance games. Their performance was recorded in each condition. Paired sample t-tests were used to analyze performance scores. Results showed significance between the sham alcohol and control Tight Rope times, between the sham alcohol and control Table Tilt points, and sham alcohol and control Table Tilt level reached. There was a trend between the sham alcohol and control Soccer Heading points and between the sham alcohol and control Ski Slalom time. In all cases, performance diminished in the alcohol condition when compared to the control condition.

Gandee, Kristin: Will the Hand Size of a Healthcare Provider Affect the Amount of Oxygen or Air Given to a Patient with a Resuscitation Bag?[(1:00)(P21)] With this study I hope to learn information about how much oxygen or air a resuscitation bag can deliver. Since these bags are used during more than just emergency resuscitations at a hospital, it is important to know how much the patient is receiving. Healthcare providers could deliver different amounts of oxygen or air to the patient depending on their hand sizes; therefore, the inadequacy in the oxygen could be damaging to a patient. To conduct this research ,I will ask twenty Wheeling Jesuit University healthcare students (respiratory therapy, nuclear medicine, nursing, and athletic training) with different hand sizes to participate. The hand sizes will correlate with the glove sizes used in the hospitals (small, medium, large, and extra large). I will take the numbers from the experiment and correlate them with the hand sizes. A ventrak machine will be used to gather the amount of pressure and volume coming from the bag to the mannequin. I will use these statistics to develop a conclusion and determine whether the hand size is a variable for the gas delivered. The students that participate must sign a consent form before participating. I will then take the data from the experiment to determine the results and hopefully answer my question.

Greco, Christian: Culture and Sensitivity of Tissue Culture Laboratory Contaminate [(1:00)(P9)] Over the course of a year an incredible amount of money is awarded to biological researches across the country. In 2008, $15,013,228,571 was given to such researchers from NIH alone. Biological tissue culture research accounts for much of the research accomplished by these funds. A constant deterrent of success in this field, including the loss of both time and financial resources, is the risk of tissue culture contamination via bacterial infection. Wheeling Jesuit University is far from immune to such cases of contamination. In fact, a recent case of bacterial contamination of a resident multipurpose tissue culture laboratory of this University compromised many materials and staff related grant supplied funds. The purpose of this project is to determine the species of the invasive pathogen responsible for this laboratory-wide contamination, as well as its antibiotic sensitivities, in order to suggest a proper defense against repeated infections of this nature in the tissue culture laboratories of Wheeling Jesuit University. Results of culture techniques concluded the pathogen to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. While initial results showed that this pathogen had gained resistance to both Penicillin and Streptomycin, further antibiotic tests confirmed sensitivity to Tetracycline, Levofloxacin, and Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Groves, Andrew; Donley, Tom; Hamilton-Cotter, Alexandra; Mogan, Sarah; Zeller, Stephanie: Perceived Control over Physical and Psychological Conditions in College Students [(1:00)(P2)] Researchers investigated perceived control over physical and psychological conditions. Ninety college students rated on a scale of 1-4 (1 being no control and 4 being complete control) their perceptions of control. Results showed that college students believe they have a higher degree of control over psychological than physical conditions but relatively low control over either type of condition. Implications of the results may lead to educational programs that increase health awareness in college students.

Hajiran, Ali: Effects of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate (IP3) Ca2+ Channel Blockers on CAOV3 Ovarian Cancer Cells [(10:00)(1C)(ASC-215)]Protein Kinase C-á; (PKC- á;) is a serine/threonine kinase that is responsible for activating a wide range of cancerous cell signaling pathways. Biopsies of breast, prostate, and ovarian tumors have revealed abnormal levels of PKC- á; expression and activity; furthermore, preliminary clinical trials have shown that drugs that specifically inhibit PKC- á; were successful in curbing cell growth rates and sensitizing cancerous cells to other chemotherapeutics (Lahn et al. 2004). These findings suggest that the control of PKC- á; activation may be critical in the management and treatment of several different types of cancers. The purpose of this project was to determine the response of an aggressively proliferating ovarian cancer cell line to cell-permeable Inositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate (IP3)-gated Ca2+ channel blockers. Biochemical studies have proven that, in addition to the binding of diacylglycerol (DAG) and a lipid cofactor, PKC- á; requires the attachment of several cytosolic Ca2+ ions to its C2 domain to become activated (Stahelin & Cho 2001). Therefore, it was hypothesized that by blocking intracellular release of Ca2+, PKC- á; would remain in its dormant state, and, theoretically, the propagation of several cancerous cell signaling pathways would be slowed or halted. Preliminary results based on observation show that 2-Aminoethoxy-diphenyl Borate (2-APB), a cell permeable IP3-gated Ca2+ channel blocker, is effective at curbing the growth rate of CAOV-3 ovarian cancer cells, even in the presence of a known tumor promoter. Quantitative data that compares the difference in the growth rates of CAOV-3 cells under various treatments is currently being gathered.

Hamilton-Cotter, Lexa; Kolks, Jonathan: The Effects of Wii Tennis Play on Pain Perception and Tolerance [(1:00)(P4)] Previous research has shown psychological and physical benefits can be gained by playing video games. They can serve as a distraction from pain and related maladaptive behaviors, such as scar picking, and can help facilitate social engagement. The current study examined whether the Nintendo Wii tennis video game could serve as a distraction from pain perception and increase pain tolerance. Thirty undergraduate participants completed each of two conditions: a session in which Wii Tennis was played while immersing their non-dominant hand in a cold pressor tank (water maintained at 3 degrees Celsius) and a session in which no game was played while the non-dominant hand was placed in the cold pressor tank. Demographics, physiological measures (blood pressure and pulse), pain ratings, mood, and task load data were collected. Participants were able to tolerate the pain significantly longer in the play condition and thought they performed better. In addition, participants thought the play condition was more physically and mentally demanding. Implications for such research include providing an alternative to pharmaceuticals for pain management.

Henson, Timothy Chad: Virtual Tour of Campus [(10:20)(1A)(ASC-315)] A variety of students and incoming adults use the internet on a regular basis. Through this ultimate communications port comes Wheeling Jesuit University's website. More than not people tend to look at professionalism as a key point when surfing college and business websites. Many universities and businesses combine professionalism and the Internet to pull in students and clients from a dynamic perspective. This research project will provide another dynamic tool for these institutions to use. The specific project will include a complete tour of Wheeling Jesuit University campus. This virtual tour will give the user the ability to look around in 360 motion at the campus by moving from building to building along with moving outside. This tour will consist of pictures from campus put together in one view for users to look around and take a tour of campus from there computer.

Hilton, Alex: Universals Through the Philosophy of Boethius [(2:40)(2B)(ASC-213)] The subject of 'universals' is one of significant importance throughout the entire history of philosophy and the way one understands if and how he/she exists has a direct impact on one's worldview. However, most people not only don't know how they understand universals but don't know what universals are at all. This philosophical inquiry will show-through the philosophy of Boethius- what universals are, how we can know them, and most importantly, why they and philosophy, in general, are important to the modern world.

Honaker, Jessica: Prey Response of the House Mouse to Captive [(1:00)(P10)] The purpose of this experiment is to examine and compare the behavioral response of the common house mouse, Mus domesticus, to the introduction of snake indicators, such as scent or movement. Differences of response between the genders will be observed as well as differences in the captive bred mice versus the wild type found in the local area. It is thought that the wild type mice will have a higher defensive or escape response to predator indicators than the domestic mice, due to their more varied genetic pool and their common exposure to predatory animals. A separate experimental container was used to observe and record responses to eliminate differences that may be caused by using the snake enclosures. The mice are either run with the empty container, predator indicators, or a predator. Once the sex and origin of the mouse are determined, the mouse is placed in the experimental chamber and allowed to adjust to the new setting for a minute or so. The mouse is then observed for five minutes timed, recording the behaviors seen on an ethogram previously created.

Huffman, Hunter: Does Employing a Respiratory Therapy Staff Change the Mortality and Morbidity Rates of Pneumonia of Residents in Long-Term Care Facilities? [(1:00)(P22)] This study is to investigate practices of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) to determine if employing respiratory therapists has positive effects on the pneumonia rates in the LTCFs' population. This will be done by comparing the pneumonia rates of LTCFs that do employ respiratory therapists and those that do not. The study will be conducted by submitting a questionnaire to LTCFs throughout the Ohio Valley. From these results, I hope to show that respiratory therapists do make an impact on the residents' lives at LTCFs by improving pneumonia rates, and thereby improving the quality of life, decreasing medical interventions, and decreasing healthcare costs.

Jack, Colin: Iron Sulfide Decompositions [(1:00)(P15)] In talking with a colleague at NASA Glenn in Cleveland, OH, there is a desire to produce and study iron sulfides. The one iron sulfide in particular is troilite. Troilite is unusual in the fact that it is not found here on Earth (or very little of it is found here). However, it is more abundant in meteorites from the Moon and possibly Mars. This is of extreme importance to NASA to be able to produce and study this iron sulfide to see how it will interact with space suits and other space equipment. An easy way to produce the iron sulfides is through the thermal decomposition of iron dithiocarbamates. We are planning on studying the decomposition pathways of many iron dithiocarbamate complexes using a TGA (Thermogravimetric Analyzer). Using this instrument, we will be able to monitor the mass loss of the sample with change in temperature.

Knuth, Amy: Mommy I Can't Breathe: What are the Respiratory Effects in the Children of Marsh Fork Elementary School from Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining? [(1:00)(P23)] This study is to research the respiratory effects in children of Marsh Fork Elementary School as a result of mountaintop removal coal mining in Sundial, WV. Questionnaires will be randomly handed out by the teachers of grades K-5 to the students and/or families of attending students of Marsh Fork Elementary in Sundial, WV to participate in my research. The questionnaire will be asking a series of questions pertaining to their current health and any experienced respiratory problems. It is an opportunity for the people of Sundial, WV to tell their experiences with surrounding mountaintop removal coal mining and battle with respiratory illness. After all the questionnaires have been collected, I will be dividing the participants' results according to respiratory signs and symptoms they have been experiencing. My intent for this research is to increase awareness so that more people can join together to find different and better ways to solve this trying problem. The first step is to get people to listen. I hope my research will inspire the government to do more pulmonary function testing on these children to concretely determine the safety of the school.

Kolks, Jonathan: The Effects of Gender, Body Size, and Task on Attribute Ratings [(1:00)(P5)] The effects of gender, body size, and task on attribute ratings were examined using a 2 x 3 x 5 x ten repeated measures design. Ninety-six participants, 46 males and 50 females, took part in a body image survey. Participants filled out a demographics sheet, rated 30 pictures of three different men and three different women on 10 different attributes. There was a small, medium, and large body type for both sexes. Each female and male body type had five conditions, including a control condition (arms hanging at side), a treadmill condition (walking on a treadmill), a television condition (watching television), a beer condition (drinking beer), and an eating condition (eating from a bowl). Participants then filled out an eating disorder packet. Researchers found consistently repeating themes throughout the entire experiment. These included: females were more critical of ratings than males; females were rated higher by both genders; as body size increased, body image and attribute ratings decreased; physical activity improved body image, while watching television, drinking a beer, or eating diminished body image and attributes.

Kung, Sarah: The Effects of Phorbol Esters on the Formation of Podosomes and Invadipodia in AFAP-110 Expressing SY5Y Neural Cells[(11:20)(1C)(ASC-215)] The SH-SY5Y cell line is a neuroblastoma cell line cultured from a metastatic bone tumor in 1970. There are multiple proteins that are known to exist in the SY5Y cell line, but of particular interest is AFAP-110. AFAP (Actin Filament Associated Protein) is thought to act as a scaffolding protein to aid in the migration of other proteins using the actin cytoskeleton. Research also indicates that AFAP-110 is an essential protein to the activation of the PKC alpha pathway, which eventually regulates and induces the formation of podosomes. Podosomes and Invadipodia are structures that are created by cells in order to establish movement, cell adhesion and migration. In addition to movement, these structures also possess the ability to degrade the matrix that they are anchored to, leading to the assumption that they may also be involved in the metastasis of cancer cells. Phorbol Esters have been known to act as strong inducers of the PKC alpha signaling pathway. Since they are not usually hydrolyzed after a period of time, they can continue to activate PKC. This "over-activation" leads to cell proliferation and can often lead to carcinogenic activity. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the role of different AFAP mutants and their interaction and influence on possible podosome and invadipodia formation mediated by to phorbol ester-induced activation of the PKC-alpha pathway. The mutants possess varying levels of expression of the AFAP protein, and these differences in expression may have an effect on the rate, shape, and invasion potential of the podosomes and invadipodia that form. Because of the known relationship between AFAP and the PKC-alpha signaling pathway, it is hypothesized that the more AFAP that a cell is able to express, the more subsequent interaction with PKC-alpha, which will induce higher changes in the podosome and invadipodia formation of those particular cells.

Lee, Cameron: Studying the Thermal Decomposition Pathway of Iron Dithiocarbamates with GC/MS [(1:00)(P16)] A group at NASA Glenn in Cleveland, OH, has a desire to produce and study iron sulfides. One of particular research interest is troilite. Troilite is unusual in the fact that it is not found here on Earth in any significant quantities. However, it is more abundant in meteorites from the Moon and possibly Mars. It is of extreme importance to NASA to be able to produce and study this iron sulfide to see how it will interact with space suits and other space equipment. An easy way to produce the iron sulfides is through the thermal decomposition of iron dithiocarbamates. We are studying the decomposition pathways of many iron dithiocarbamate complexes using GC/MS(Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer) with a Chromatoprobe attachment. With the Chromatoprobe, the solid sample will be heated and volatilized to a gas and passed through the GC/MS. Using this instrument, we will be able to identify the fragments of the decomposing samples.

Linkinoggor, Mark: Does a Do-Not-Resuscitate Order Put Limits on Treatment Administered to Patients by Physicians? [(1:00)(P24)] Do treatment routines of patients with Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) orders differ from those who do not have a DNR order? This study will explore whether a DNR order influences the treatment orders patients receive compared to patients with the same diagnosis, but without a DNR order in place. A total of 40 DNR and non-DNR patients, deceased or living, with the same diagnosis, will have their medical charts reviewed. These patients will be current or former patients at Wheeling Hospital or Ohio Valley Medical Center (OVMC) of West Virginia and Ohio. Twenty of these participants will be patients who have had DNR orders and 20 participants will be patients who have not had DNR orders. The participants will be between 40 and 80 years of age. The data received from the medical charts of DNR patients will be compared and contrasted to patients without DNR orders, but with the same diagnosis. The goal is to reveal to the public the possible limitations and problem areas with healthcare access due to DNR status.

Longwell, Bill: Slaying the Beast: The Demilitarization of Japan and the Emergence of the Self Defense Force [(11:00)(1B)(ASC-212)] My presentation focuses on the demilitarization of Japan with particular emphasis placed on the creation of the new Japanese Constitution in 1947. The 1947 Japanese constitution, as it stands, states Japan cannot have any military or arms that could lead to an unprovoked aggressive attack by the Japanese. They do, however, have a military, including a navy, air force, and army. My presentation will look into the 1947 Constitution and discuss the legitimacy regarding the presence of the Japanese Military, which has come to be referred to as the Japanese Self Defense Force. I will also look into current implications pertaining to the topic, and discuss if the Japanese Constitution should in fact, be amended in order to allow for a Japanese military force free from controversy.

Mivumbi, Clement: Why does Rwanda Need the Establishment of Respiratory Therapy as a Profession Apart From Other Healthcare Profession in Rwanda? [(1:00)(P25)] In many undeveloped countries, the respiratory therapy profession is not separated from other healthcare. In this study, I will compare healthcare systems with respiratory therapy as a specialty and those without respiratory therapy as a specialty. I will send a questionnaire to Wheeling Hospital doctors and nurses and then compare their point of view to healthcare professionals from Rwanda. In Rwanda the espiratory department is not separated from other healthcare departments. The questionnaire will ask healthcare providers about their experiences in working with respiratory therapists, and how they would be affected if there were no respiratory therapists in the department. After the questionnaires are collected, I will compare and contrast the results and try to use what I find to bring awareness to those who do not have respiratory therapy as a distinct profession.

Moffatt, Lindsay; Cook, Lauren; Cotter, Joan; Mertz, Stefanie: The Effect of Body Type on the Way Others Perceive Personality Characteristics [(1:00)(P6)] The perceived personality traits that people associate with different body masses were examined using a 2 x 4 factorial design. Eighty-three participants (42 females and 41 males) were asked to complete surveys that contained four separate images containing both females and males. The participants rated each image based on 18 different personality traits. Nine of the traits studied showed statistical significance between at least two body size groups. No gender differences occurred. These results could be used to further the knowledge of how people stereotype certain personalities based on a person's body size.

Norman, Ryan: Fourierism: A Plan for Heaven on Earth [(10:40)(1B)(ASC-212)] As the Twentieth Century developed, an increasingly tense mood fell over the world. With the threat of war imminent throughout the century, people desperately needed outlets through which to express their angst. In the literary world, writers produced works reflecting such emotions. They did not, however, represent just the worst of mankind: the fearful, hopeless, and destructive; they also portrayed the best: the courageous, optimistic, and creative. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote during the interwar period of this dynamic century, producing works echoing the continuum of people's feelings, from hope to despair. In his short story "Babylon Revisited," Fitzgerald presents the character of Charlie Wales, who struggles to reconcile his reckless past. Charlie and his wife, Helen, experience the financial prosperity and optimism of America in the Roaring Twenties, subsequently moving to Paris to enjoy an even more lavish, though eventually frivolous, lifestyle. As "Babylon Revisited" opens, Charlie returns to Paris seeking custody of Honoria, his daughter with Helen. Over the course of the story, we learn that in an atmosphere of partying, philandering, and drug using, Helen and Charlie begin to abuse each other's love, which, combined with health problems, leads to Helen's death. Now, a few years later, Charlie attempts to regain custody of Honoria from Marion, Helen's sister. Charlie tries to overcome his past debauchery and be a good father, though it may be too little too late. Ultimately, Fitzgerald's story mirrors the events of the Twentieth Century through its own Boom and Bust: Charlie Wales thrives in the Roaring Twenties only to lose everything in the Crash of 1929

Norman, Ryan: Hoping Amidst Despair: The Contemporary Paradox in Fitzgerald's "Babylon Revisited" [(3:00)(2A)(ASC-212)] As the Twentieth Century developed, an increasingly tense mood fell over the world. With the threat of war imminent throughout the century, people desperately needed outlets through which to express their angst. In the literary world, writers produced works reflecting such emotions. They did not, however, represent just the worst of mankind: the fearful, hopeless, and destructive; they also portrayed the best: the courageous, optimistic, and creative. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote during the interwar period of this dynamic century, producing works echoing the continuum of people's feelings, from hope to despair. In his short story "Babylon Revisited," Fitzgerald presents the character of Charlie Wales, who struggles to reconcile his reckless past. Charlie and his wife, Helen, experience the financial prosperity and optimism of America in the Roaring Twenties, subsequently moving to Paris to enjoy an even more lavish, though eventually frivolous lifestyle. As "Babylon Revisited" opens, Charlie returns to Paris seeking custody of Honoria, his daughter with Helen. Over the course of the story, we learn that in an atmosphere of partying, philandering, and drug using, Helen and Charlie begin to abuse each other's love, which, combined with health problems, leads to Helen's death. Now, a few years later, Charlie attempts to regain custody of Honoria from Marion, Helen's sister. Charlie tries to overcome his past debauchery and be a good father, though it may be too little too late. Ultimately, Fitzgerald's story mirrors the events of the Twentieth Century through its own Boom and Bust: Charlie Wales thrives in the Roaring Twenties only to lose everything in the Crash of 1929

Park, Jay: Determining the Concentration of Sulfates in the Water of a Nearby Creek [(1:00)(P17)] Sulfates can get into a water supply from industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural drainage, and runoff. At high concentrations, sulfates can have a laxative effect on the population. Also, it could be a problem for wastewater treatment plants, where it could get converted into sulfuric acid. A small section of a creek near the campus of Wheeling Jesuit will be studied to determine the amount of sulfates in the water. We will analyze the amount of sulfate by adding excess barium chloride to precipitate the barium sulfate. The colloidal suspension will be measured using a spectrophotometer. A set of standards will be prepared, and the concentration of the sulfate will be determined from comparison to the standards. Sulfate levels will be compared to current regulated limits.

Petros, Angela D.: A Study of the Interactions Between Wild and Captive, Male Ring-Tailed Lemurs [(1:00)(P11)] The Ring-Tailed Lemur is a rare species of primates living in the southern part of Madagascar. Lemurs are very social creatures and often live in large groups led by dominant females. In addition to dominant females, dominant males also reign within the group. Male hierarchy is formed with older, stronger males being dominant, and the younger, weaker males being subordinate. Dominance is established through threats, displays, and fights. The purpose of this project is to observe the behaviors between captive and wild, male Ring-Tailed Lemurs. Currently at Oglebay Zoo, there are two male Lemurs on exhibit, and two more had recently been acquired. At first, the two "wild" lemurs were held in quarantine for routine shots and examination. This project will focus on the individual behavior of each Lemur to note any stereotypies, changes in social hierarchy, exhibit use, and other abnormal behaviors. Data will be collected and compared before and after the animals are introduced. Also ethograms will be constructed for each individual lemur. Each animal was observed for 30 minutes at a time. Every minute their actions and location were recorded. It is hypothesized that the captive alpha lemur will remain dominate. Official numeric results are still being analyzed; however, thus far the results are as hypothesized in that the alpha captive lemur has remained dominant.

Rennie, Katie: Thermodynamic Studies on Conjugated Heteroalkenes [(1:00)(P18)] The objective of this research is to evaluate the resonance stabilization of oxygen and nitrogen containing conjugated compounds. This will be accomplished by measuring the heat of hydrogenation for conjugated compounds and comparing it to that of non-conjugated compounds. When hydrogen is added to a carbon-carbon double bond, energy is released (heat of hydrogenation). If there is resonance stabilization, less energy is released because the molecule is more stable. This resonance stabilization effect in hydrocarbons with two or more carbon-carbon double bonds has been exhaustively studied.1-5 The resonance stabilization of a carbon-carbon double bond conjugated to the carbon-oxygen double bond (C=O) of ketones and aldehydes is also widely accepted.6 However, reports of the actual resonance stabilization energies of molecules other than hydrocarbons have been considerably less numerous.7,8 The resonance stabilization of carbon-carbon double bonds conjugated to a carbon-nitrogen double bond is even less well studied than the oxygen containing compounds.9,10 While conjugated enimines (C=C-C=N) have been used synthetically for decades, there has been little investigation into the resonance stabilization of these compounds. The heats of hydrogenation will be determined for a series of enimines with varying structures to probe the effect structure has on resonance stabilization and therefore on the extent of conjugation. This project combines physical organic investigation with synthetic methodology.

Schmidt, Emma: Antimicrobial Potential of the Japanese Knotweed and Justicia americana [(1:00)(P12)] The purpose of this study is to determine if there is any significant anti-microbial potential in two common plants found on the Wheeling Jesuit campus: Japanese Knotweed and Justicia americana. Plant materials were collected and stored in the refrigerator, freezer, or at room temperature. The four places that the plants were tested for antibiotic potential were in the roots, stems, leaves, or flowers of the plants. These materials were then extracted into infusions and tested using the Kirby Baur method against three bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. These results were compared against the effects of commercial antibiotics Penicillin, Streptomycin, and Tetracycline that are known to inhibit bacterial growth against the three strains of bacteria. It was found that the Japanese Knotweed, stored at room temperature, did not contain any significant antibiotic potential against the three bacterial strains. (Further results pending)

Sleevi, Shelby: Absalom, Absalom! and The Poisonwood Bible: Telling and Retelling the "Truth" [(2:40)(2A)(ASC-212)] William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! and Barbara Kingsolver's The Poisonwood Bible are two novels that experiment with multiple-narrator structure: both feature main characters at their centers whose tales are told to us by the characters around them. This fragmented, multiple-narrator structure more effectively conveys important thematic elements within the two texts than would a simpler, more traditional narrative style in which one voice and point of view are privileged. In my longer paper on the topic, I discuss this narrative technique as examined in the essays of Russian theorist Mikhail Bakhtin, as well as the many ways in which the technique is effectively put to work by Faulkner and Kingsolver to convey their themes. My paper offers an in-depth examination of the striking thematic similarities expressed by the two novels, which include the treatment of the past as subjective rather than absolute, the exposure of miscalculated white superiority in relation to characters of color, and the roles and voices of women within the texts. For the purposes of this presentation, I will focus on the theories of Bakhtin as they pertain to multiple-narrator style and will exemplify how this style is at work in these particular novels through the varying degrees of voice allotted to the female characters in the text.

Splenda, Ryan: "The Bear" and Darrell Change Game Plans: Racial Integration of the Alabama and Texas Football Programs [(10:00)(1B)(ASC-212)] My presentation is on a race-relations study of the American South. It focuses on the desegregation of the Alabama and Texas college football programs. Both schools integrated their universities by 1963, but the head coaches of their football teams chose not to integrate until 1971. The presentation focuses on the pressures that both coaches (Paul "Bear" Bryant - Alabama and Darrell Royal - Texas) faced in regards to integrating their teams. It also explores the cultural background of the South, as well as the backgrounds of the two coaches, and how those factors played a role in the slow integration process. The ultimate goal is to explore another facet of the struggle for racial equality within the United States of America. Sports are a large and important cultural factor that can unite and divide a large group of people. My presentation focuses on how the eventual integration of both of these teams helped ease many tensions in the South as well as exposed the racial problems that the United States has dealt with in the past and continues to struggle with today.

Tomlin, Lindsay: The Study of Microorganisms in Coal Slurry for the Production of Bio-Fuels [(1:00)(P13)] The world has become too dependent on oil and gasoline. Therefore, once they become rare, major problems could arise. However, it was found that microorganisms live in coal slurry and produce bio-fuels. The microorganisms were isolated by Dr. Cook as unknowns from West Virginia coal slurries. The coal slurries were collected by Dr. Stout. The unknowns included in this study were A3, D1, AG3, AM5, B1, B3, A2, D3, D2, A1, AM4, and AM5. They were then studied and identified as gram-negative or gram-positive organisms. Once this was known, other tests were conducted and the unknowns were identified. Because microorganisms produce bio-fuels, the knowledge of what microorganism live in coal slurry can then be used in later research projects. Systems can be set up to utilize the microorganism's bio-fuels as energy sources once oil and gasoline become depleted.

Wolfe, Brittany: When Doing Drug Aerosol Therapy, How Does Varying the Liter Flow Rate Affect Drug Aerosol Particle Deposition for Different Nebulizers? [(1:00)(P26)] When doing drug aerosol therapy, how does varying the liter flow rate affect drug aerosol particle deposition for different nebulizers? This is the question that will be researched during this study. Determining what affects administering drug aerosol treatments at higher than recommended flow rates has on the deposition of the medication to the targeted site (the lungs) is very important to know because this practice is occurring frequently in the hospital setting. While administering drug aerosol treatments on higher flow rates is not recommended, in reality, it occurs everyday for a variety of reasons including shorter treatment times and convenience. As a result of this research, a determination of which nebulizer will minimize any negative affects that administering these drug aerosol treatments at higher than recommended flow rates may have on drug aerosol particle deposition will be made as well.