Student Research and Scholarship Symposium 2012 Abstracts

Explanation of the coding system: The following abstracts are presented in alphabetical order by first author. For the oral presentations the information in the brackets includes the time of the presentation (e.g., 2:20), the session (e.g., 2C), and the location of the session (e.g., ASC-212). For poster sessions, the bracketed information includes the time of the session (e.g., 12:45) and the poster board number where the poster is to be found (e.g., P4).

Algee, Sarah: [3:30-3:45] [2D] [ASC-315] Visual Representations of the Intersection of Sets. The Venn diagram, a picture of two or three interlocking circles, is a very important tool to show relationships in logic, statistics, and other sciences. However, if more than three parts to an argument are present, then it is impossible to use a Venn diagram to represent the data. Because many fields need to show relationships between more than three objects, it is useful to explore the use of other shapes to pictorially represent intersection of sets. The focus of this research was specifically on using four or more ellipses, rectangles, and triangles, as well attempting to establish guideline rules of congruence and if the shapes need to be equilateral.

Amos, Chelsea: [1:00] [P2] In Long-Term Acute Patient Care, Does the Daily Environment Affect the Ability to Wean from Mechanical Ventilation? In long-term acute patient care, does the daily environment affect the ability to wean from mechanical ventilation? This study will examine different environmental aspects that can benefit the wean ability of the long-term acute patient from mechanical ventilation. I plan to distribute questionnaires to the staff, long-term acute mechanically-ventilated patients, and the patients' family members at Acuity Healthcare. Based on the results of this study, I plan to make a conclusion about a positive environment to place the long-term acute patient in, in order to aid in their faster and more efficient wean from mechanical ventilation. The results of this study will be referenced in the future to help in the design of environmental protocols for the long-term acute mechanically-ventilated patient.

Baker, Maegan: [11:00] [P1] Do Previous Traumatic Experiences Influence Claustrophobia in Military Veterans Receiving Nuclear Medicine Scans? Is there a relationship between military veterans exposed to life altering events and their behaviors when undergoing a nuclear medicine scan? I plan to examine possible relationships to find ways to help make patients more comfortable throughout their procedures. I plan to recruit military veterans who have previously received a nuclear medicine scan. I will send questionnaires and consent forms to participating VA hospitals in Pennsylvania and Ohio, asking 20 participants to complete a questionnaire and consent form if they meet the requirements to my research. These individuals will be able to complete the questionnaire at home, then mail it back with the addressed envelope provided. I plan to use the results of this research to find some means to reduce the patient's anxiety level.

Balbier, Catherine, B.; Hepp: [11:00] [P1] Differential Scanning Calorimetry of the Thermal Decomposition of Metal Dithiocarbamate Complexes. Thermal decomposition of metal dithiocarbamates can be used to produce metal sulfides. These metal sulfides have numerous aerospace applications including hydrocracking catalysts for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch products to jet fuels, modeling of pre-biotic chemistry, production of high fidelity lunar regolith (soil) simulants, and photovoltaic devices. Previous thermal analysis work by faculty and students at WJU has focused on the mass loss during thermal decomposition using thermal gravimetric analysis. This does not, however, provide information on process, such as phase changes, that are not associated with a mass loss. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) monitors heat flow into or out of the sample and therefore will reveal thermodynamic processes regardless whether or not there is a change in mass. This project focuses on the thermal decomposition of nickel dithiocarbamate complexes.

Beatty, Kasandra: [2:45-3:00] [2B] [ASC-213] Undervaluation of Standard Uptake Value (SUV) Measurements due to Segmentation and Transmission Mismatch for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Issued by the National Cancer Institute's Centers of Quantitative Imaging Excellence Accreditation (NCI-CQIE). Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) systems often use a uniform cylinder phantom suspended in air to compute Standard Uptake Value (SUV) calibrations. As part of National Cancer Institute's Centers of Qualitative Imaging Excellence accreditation process, scans performed on a Philips "Gemini" PET/CT scanner illustrate SUVs below the allowable limit of 0.9. The goal of this project is to determine why SUVs fall below allowable limits when scanning phantoms on the patient table using whole body (WB) protocol. A 30 cubic centimeter, 20 cm diameter uniform cylindrical phantom filled with 74MBq of F-18 FGD was scanned in three separate bed positions. Two scans were performed using University of Maryland Medical Center's (UMMC) clinical WB protocol, one with the phantom suspended in air and the other on the table. A third scan was performed with the phantom on the table using UMMC's brain protocol. For WB protocol, while suspending the phantom in air, mean SUVs using a Cs-137 source and CT attenuation correction (AC) were 0.985 and 0.976, respectively. Scanning the phantom on the table, using brain protocol resulted in a mean SUV of 0.967. Using the same WB protocol with the phantom on the table, mean SUVs were 0.885 and 0.882. Iterative reconstruction algorithms are mathematical equations used to update these images by comparing original data to predicted data. Changing the number of iterations during reconstruction can effect mean SUVs. After investigation, images obtained using WB protocol show a mismatch between segmentation and transmission images, implicating that failure to account for patient table attenuation in both images causes SUV underestimation.

Beck, Rory; Suak: [1:00] [P2] An Investigation of Non-Obvious Causes of Death Pertaining to Total War. In this poster, we will explore the topic of Total War through the lens of chemistry and biochemistry. The two World Wars were both considered to be total wars due to the mobilization of countries as well as the targeting of nonmilitary locations. A defining feature of all War is a mass loss of life both on the battlefield and on the home front as it becomes a target. We will investigate some well known but less obvious causes of death such as explosives, incendiary devices, nuclear weapons and infection to see exactly what about these cause people to die. To better encapsulate the interdisciplinary nature of the topic, we will be comparing these causes with historical situations in which they occurred, as well as looking briefly at the development of the most potent weapon ever used; the atomic bomb.

Beck, Rory; Hepp; [11:00] [P1] Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition of tris-diethyldithiocarbamato iron(IV) hexafluorophosphate. The Wheeling Jesuit University (WJU) chemistry department and its undergraduate research assistants are currently collaborating with Dr. Aloysius Hepp at NASA Glenn Research Center. Dr. Hepp is investigating dithiocarbamate compounds produced and characterized at WJU as precursors to metal sulfide components of lunar regolith simulants as well as possible catalysts and photovoltaic materials. A current focus of the research involves chemical and electrochemical synthesis and characterization of new iron dithiocarbamate compounds (specifically iron(II) and iron(IV)) whose thermal decomposition has not yet been studied. In this project, the chemical synthesis of iron(IV) dithiocarbamates will be investigated and the resultant products analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Bonar, Lacey: [2:45-3:00] [2A] [ASC-212] Anglo-American Diplomatic Relations via Sir John Dill. The turmoil of World War Two threatened the relationship between various world powers as the diplomatic relations were greatly strained throughout the duration of the war. In order to uphold these ties, associations had to be made between citizens of each allied country to ensure constant cooperation and trust. One such of these diplomats was Sir John Dill; upholding constant contact between England and America, Dill's personal skills allowed him to make connections and friendships which would serve to maintain the ties between the British and Americans through the completion of the war. Establishing a close relationship with governmental authorities such as George C. Marshall, Dill was able to form a trust which allowed him to gain knowledge of important information regarding the war. His personal efforts allowed for the establishment of many important friendships which led to beneficial decisions being made on the side of the Americans and the British during the Second World War.

Bonar, Lacey: [1:00] [P2] The Hitler-Jugend. World War Two was a total war in various ways. Aside from the participants' actual militaries and governments, average civilians were also involved in the war effort. A prime example of this aspect of total war is the country of Germany. Mobilizing the communities around Germany to assist in their hopeful victory, Hitler attempted to make use out of all citizens. Developing a paramilitary organization named the Hitler-Jugend, or Hitler Youth, the children of Germany were also able to assist in the country's war activities. The tasks given to these youths involved basic national duties such as involvement with the postal service and ranged to actual military engagements such as the youth brigade who participated in the Battle of Berlin. By mobilizing this portion of the citizenry to his benefit, Hitler successfully involved the young members of the German state in direct participation with the war and its complications. The assistance of these young members of society greatly benefitted Germany as its resources of manpower were running low due to its large loss of soldiers.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Brogdon, Pete: [10:45-11:00] [1B] [ASC-213] "Do Citizens Display Consistency in Managing Religious Beliefs and Political Behavior?" The question being researched in this thesis is "Do Citizens Display Consistency in Managing Religious Beliefs and Political Behavior?" This questions stems from an inquiry that was made awhile ago about the balance of religious thoughts and political actions of people after viewing their views on politics and religion and this project is an opportunity to have a more in depth look at the issue. It seems that individuals claim to consult their religion in all aspects of life yet when a question that introduces a political issue arrives many may find it hard to believe that there lies an inconsistency between their religious belief and political behavior. A Pew Research study is an example of a survey that was constructed to show the connection between religious beliefs and political behavior in terms of voting. This survey focused on the two-thousand and four presidential election in which those at Pew attempted to uncover a political division caused by lines of faith. In this survey it seems that the Pew Forum may have possibly misconceived causation and correlation, by overlooking other factors that may cause citizens to believe religiously and contrarily act politically. I hypothesize that the more people understand their religion the less likely they will have any type of discrepancy between their political behavior and religious beliefs. If Pew is correct in their survey and Americans are becoming more "religious" in the political arena, it would only seem to be fit that they would be able to manage their political behavior in concordance with their religious beliefs.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Burke, Allison: [10:00-10:15] [1A] [ASC-212] From Woman to Witch: the Role of Misogyny in Witchcraft Accusation. Until the 13th century witchcraft was considered a fraud and an illusion. The Black Death and the Inquisition changed this. The labor shortages in the aftermath of the Black Death provided opportunities for medieval women to make their roles in society larger. The Church, with its long history of misogynous attitudes, saw the empowerment of women as a threat, and began to attribute maleficent intent to behaviors that were previously ignored or seen as non-threatening. This was especially true of the practice of magic, or witchcraft, which was defined now as a heresy. While the causes of the witch-hunt craze were complex, there is general consensus that misogyny played a role in the predominance of women accused of this crime. When two Dominican Inquisitors, Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, wrote the Malleus Maleficarum which became a witch-craze. This book provided the process for identifying, interrogating, and convicting a witch. With the Malleus Maleficarum: "the differentiation between a mentally sick person, a witch, and a heretic became less and less definite." With the lines between psychological mentalities blurring, the witch-craze intensified and the numbers of women executed increased.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Burke, Allison; Cotter, Florian, Jarvis: [1:00] [P2] The Effects of Color and Sex on Personality Trait Ratings. The purpose of this experiment was to measure the personality traits that men and women associate with 12 different colors, using a 12 (colors) X 2 (sex) design. Eighty-eight undergraduate students (36 males and 52 females) from an eastern Catholic university volunteered to take part in the survey. Participants rated twelve colors on how closely they reflected five personality traits (from The Big Five Personality Test), by choosing numbers from 1 ("this color is very uncharacteristic of the trait") to 5 ("this color is very characteristic of the trait") scale. The results were analyzed using five separate mixed design ANOVAs. Each of the personality traits showed a significant main effect for color ratings—suggesting that some colors are perceived as being more representative of certain personality traits than other colors are. For example, pink was perceived to be most representative of extroversion; yellow most representative of agreeableness; blue most representative of conscientiousness; red most representative of openness to new experience; and white most representative of emotional stability. Additionally, it was found that men and women rate colors significantly differently for extroversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability. These interactions show that women associate more positive feelings to brighter and pastel colors than men do, and that men associate more positive feelings to neutral colors than women do. Results could be useful in advertising and design, by suggesting that professionals use the color(s) that would best exemplify the personality trait(s) they are aiming to portray.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Callahan, Patrick; Bauman, Truelove, Williams: [1:00] [P2] F***ing Facebook. Social media is changing the way people work, learn and live. Facebook, with more than 800 million users worldwide is the most popular social network. This study explores the use of profanity, inappropriate content and gender within Facebook statuses. The data that were collected was compiled from more than 3000 status updates via a convenience sample of seven Facebook users from 9/10-9/12, 2011. The data were then categorized into twelve different categorizes. The categories included: Non-Offensive Statuses, Posting Inappropriate (links, Photos, Videos, etc.), Self Harm, Harm Towards Others (Personal Hates), Racial Slurs, Acronyms (LMAO, FML, Effing, F***, etc.), Sexual Comments, Mildly Offensive Words, Mildly Offensive Curse Words, Moderately Offensive Curse Words, Extremely Offensive Curse Words, and Other. There were more than 1400 statuses coded by four independent coders. The data will be analyzed and cross-tabulated based upon gender. The statuses were selected randomly looking at every third status update. The purpose of this study is explore in greater depth how people conduct themselves on Facebook and how gender impacts the content of status messages.

Capiola, August; Akers: [1:00] [P2] An Examination of the Psychological and Physiological Aspects of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can be understood as a cluster of symptoms attributed to past traumatic events. However, PTSD is not only a psychological stress disorder; it also has a physiological basis demonstrated by neurological abnormalities in various brain regions, as well as unbalanced neurotransmitter activity. Researchers sought out the psychological and biological correlates in those affected by Post-traumatic stress and attempted to clarify the position that this stress disorder is not merely a self-reported disposition but a disorder with an organic basis that can develop in individuals of different traumatic backgrounds. By restating the history of the disorder, as well as principles in Psychology and Nuclear Medicine, Post traumatic Stress Disorder can be understood as a mental disorder with dualistic categorization.

Capiola, August: [1:00] [P2] Effects of Soccer Ball "Heading" Intensity on Memory, Reaction Time, and Impulse Control. Past research is contradictory concerning the detrimental effects of soccer ball "heading" on memory, and lacking in the areas of reaction time and impulse control. The present study examined the effects of heading intensity on these neuro-cognitive variables. Men and women soccer teams completed the Impactâ„¢ Neuro-cognitive Assessment protocol before and after their competition seasons. Groups were formed for data analysis based on average heading intensity during competition, and the data were analyzed using a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) on measures of verbal memory, visual memory, motor speed, reaction time and impulse control. A significant MANOVA result was found, F=327.47, p<.001. Athletes engaging in high intensity heading had decreased verbal memory and increased reaction time scores pre- to post-season, indicating a detrimental effect of high intensity heading. Pre- to post-season impulse control scores decreased in athletes engaging in low intensity heading, but were unchanged in athletes engaging in high intensity heading, suggesting additional attentional workload was required of those athletes to complete the neuro-cognitive assessment. Significant correlations were noted among the neuro-cognitive assessment measures and variables such as heading frequency, post-heading dizziness, and concussion history. Thus, significant detrimental effects on memory, reaction time and impulse control are associated with high intensity soccer ball heading. These data indicate the need for education and intervention related to safer heading techniques in the sport.

Capiola, August: [1:00] [P2] The Effects of Food Neophobia and Food Neophilia on Diet and Metabolic Processing. Past research shows that food neophobics (those individuals reluctant to try novel foods) and neophilics (those individuals overtly willing to try novel foods) differ in terms of physiological responses as well as genetic predispositions. The present study assessed whether such factors had an effect on participants' dietary consumption. One hundred and sixteen participants, aged 18-76 years, completed a food diary for three days as well as several eating-related questionnaires. Nutritional summaries and questionnaire scores were subjected to a MANCOVA with participants being sorted into three groups: food neophobics, average, and food neophilics depending on their Food Neophobia Score. Groups were found to differ significantly on dietary intake of 20 specific nutritional and caloric items, with food-neophobics typically having the lowest intake. Implications support initial hypothesis of food neophobics having less nutritionally plentiful diets than food neophilics, thus leading food neophobics to have a nutritionally deficient diet.

Casuccio, Luisa: [10:15-10:30] [1D] [ASC-312] Grey's Anatomy: Fact or Fiction. Medical dramas have become increasingly popular in recent years. Because of the rising interest, more and more people are being influenced by the content portrayed in the shows like Grey's Anatomy. As the viewing exposure increases, so does the impact on the viewer. Long-term viewers tend to start believing what they are seeing is reality, leaving a false impression of the medical profession. This not only leaves a lasting impression on the general public, but it also skews medical students and up-in-coming nurse's impression of what the medical field is really like. Grey's Anatomy depicts rare cases with procedures that are so risky most physicians will not attempt. Granted, not all aspects of Grey's Anatomy are false and can be a great educational tool for medical students. However, medical show representatives for Grey's Anatomy make it clear that entertainment value comes before medical accuracy. Research has gone in depth about the influence medical dramas have on the public, the learning opportunities portrayed in each episode, and the inaccuracies of the dramas. A survey has been sent to physicians, residents, nurses, and the general public at West Virginia University Hospital, Wheeling Hospital and facebook users about their view of the accuracies and inaccuracies of Grey's Anatomy. Result of the survey are still being collected and analyzed.

Christopher, Kevin: [1:00] [P2]The Proliferative Capabilities of Radial Glial Cell Line C6 in vitro. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate proliferative capabilities of radial glial cells. Radial glial cells are known to proliferate into astrocytes, ependymal cells, and B-cells, and are hypothesized to proliferate into oIPC's (intermediate progenitor cells that generate oligodendrocytes) and nIPC's (intermediate progenitor cells that generate neurons). Using the Radial Glial cell line "C6-R", cultures will be created to differentiate into astrocytes (as a control for cell potency) and oIPC's and nIPC's, which should then further generate oligodendrocytes and neurons respectively. The ability of these cells to differentiate into neurons could hold a potential method of brain repair.

Coyne, Thomas: [10:30-10:45] [1B] [ASC-213] The Limits of the "Hidden Hand" Presidency: A Case Study of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Farewell Address. Throughout his two terms in office President Dwight D. Eisenhower had many proud accomplishments. In his farewell address to the nation, he took his last opportunity to warn of an increasing military industrial complex. Despite all his work, while in office he was unable to satisfy the want to prevent the increase of the military industrial complex. This thesis seeks to identify that as his presidency progressed President Eisenhower transitioned from a facilitator to a director model of leadership, as understood by Edwards and Wayne, due to the limits of the "hidden hand" and its inability to allow Eisenhower to stop its growth. President Eisenhower is a case study of the presidency by looking at the problems all presidents face when choosing a leadership style. This topic was chosen due to the interest that has been steadily increasing in recent years as it has become more clear how much criticism is given in regards to presidents and what they accomplish.

Crihfield, Cassandra; Hepp: [11:00] [P1] Investigation of the Loss of Carbonyl Ligands From cis-dicarbonylbis(diorganodithiocarbamato)iron(II) During Thermal Decomposition. Metal dithiocarbamates are complexes of metal ions and the uninegative dithiocarbamate ligand, S2CNR2-, where R is an organic substituent. The properties of these complexes are dependent on the identity of the metal ion and the nature of the organic substituents on the dithiocarbamate ligand. The Wheeling Jesuit University (WJU) chemistry department and its undergraduate research assistants are currently collaborating with Dr. Aloysius Hepp at NASA Glenn Research Center. Dr. Hepp is investigating dithiocarbamate compounds produced and characterized at WJU as precursors to metal sulfide components of lunar regolith simulants as well as possible catalysts and photovoltaic materials. The focus of this research project involves investigation of the thermal decomposition of cisdicarbonylbis(diorganodithiocarbamato)iron(II), in particular, the loss of one carbonyl ligand to form the monocarbonyl complex. The organic functional groups on the dithiocarbamate ligand appear to have a significant effect on the stability of the monocarbonyl comples. Thermogravimetric analysis of the iron(II) complex will be used to investigate the monocarbonyl formation and possibly determine specific properties of the functional group that affect the monocarbonyl stability.

Elliot, Marrah, N.: [11:00] [P1] Does Electrical Stimulation Alter Neurological Symptoms in Patients Affected by Transverse Myelitis? Is it possible for electrical stimulation to alter the neurological symptoms in patients suffering from Transverse Myelitis? This study will examine various types of electrical stimulation that may be used as beneficial treatment options to such patients. I plan to distribute questionnaires to neurologists and physical therapists in both hospitals and private practices within roughly an hour radius of Wheeling, WV. Based on the results of this study, I will conclude if any of the mentioned types of electrical stimulation can indeed alter the neurological symptoms in patients affected by Transverse Myelitis. It is my hope that the results of this study will lay the framework for future research needed to convince health care providers that electrical stimulation can become a treatment option for this disorder.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Ferraro, Adrianna: [3:00-3:15] [2A] [ASC-212] Women of Integrity in the Struggle for Acceptance: The Beguines and the Church in Thirteenth-Century Europe. June 1, 1310, a woman approached the stake at Paris, where a raging fire fueled by jeering Christians waited to pull her to the depths of Hell. But only to local Inquisitors amidst the hostile crowd did hell seem so certain a fate. They conceived this woman as a heretic, the most daunting rival to the Church, an institution of profound religious influence in medieval Europe. While many victims at the stake were truly heretical, this particular woman represented a pure Christian and did not deserve such a formidable death. She was Marguerite Porete, a woman whose work was greatly misinterpreted by the Church yet conveyed the earnest mission of a prominent female group that drew much controversy in medieval history. This notorious group was known as the Beguines. Porete's murder not only highlights the stringency of the Church; it shows the misconception of the Beguines and the struggle of these women to prove their importance in a time of religious upheaval. The negative portrayals of the Beguines in thirteenth-century Europe reflect not only the demeaning views of religious females in the Middle Ages, but also illuminate the struggle for respect that has faced women for centuries. While the Beguines were notably problematic for the Church, they contributed positive attributes to the image of popular medieval religion and ignited the work of reputable Christian women, which proves this movement valuable during a period of religious conflict in European history.

Image indicating this presentation is related to the Wheeling community, West Virginia and/or the Appalachian region.Fitzgibbon, Andrea: [10:30-10:45] [1C] [ASC-215] Leaf Decay Coefficients of Abnormally High Conductivity Streams in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Historically southwestern Pennsylvania has experienced coal mining and processing, coal bed methane, and Marcellus Shale hydraulic fracturing which collectively impact regional streams. These industrial processes cause stream water conductivity to increase due to an increase in dissolved solids. Previous studies have shown that high conductivity has an impact on the macroinvertebrate population and potentially the function of the stream. The purpose of this study was to examine leaf decay coefficients of high conductivity streams as a measure of stream ecosystem function to delineate impacts of industrial processes. If streams have abnormally high conductivity then they will yield significantly different decay coefficients compared to the reference streams, because of the impact on the Macroinvertebrates community. Two reference sites included a small Pennsylvania Exceptional Value reference stream and a tributary upstream therefore isolated industrial activity. Two study sites were potentially impacted by the aforementioned processes. These sites are being monitored for conductivity. Heavy metals as well as chlorides and sulfates were analyzed at each site. Reference streams yield conductivity values ranging from 153 to 356 µS/cm. The impacted streams exhibited greater variance with values that ranged from 302 to 2,860 µS/cm in the larger stream compared to 1,248 to 1,654 µS/cm in the smaller stream. Macroinvertebrates present in reference streams included pollution intolerant mayflies such as Epeorus and Ameletus, and a leaf shredder community dominated by Peltoperla, Pycnopsyche and Tipula abdominalis. The impacted streams had few macroinvertebrates which were pollution intolerant versus reference streams. We will report on water chemistry including heavy metals, chlorides, and sulfates. Leaf decay coefficients from tethered sugar maple leaf packs will be compared using GLM ANOVA with the factors time and location. Focusing on the interaction term time * location to determine if significant differences exist between high conductivity and reference streams.

Florian, Jessica; Capiola: [1:00] [P2] The Effects of Jasmine and Peppermint Administration on Physiological and Psychological Stress Reactions in Enclosed Spaces. Enclosed spaces can cause significant anxiety and stress responses in individuals, which may hinder their ability to perform certain tasks. The present study assessed the effects of jasmine scent administration on physical and psychological stress reactions in enclosed spaces. Participants completed the protocol on two separate occasions. For each participant's first visit, they completed questionnaires related to mood (Profile of Mood States) and anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory) prior to and after spending 20 minutes in an empty sensory deprivation tank. During this time objective physiological measures of heart rate, galvanic skin response, and respirations were recorded. For the participant's second visit, they repeated the experimental protocol either in the presence or absence of jasmine or peppermint scent. Participants receiving jasmine scent on their second visit showed decreased heart rate, galvanic skin response, anxiety scores, and stress scores than did the control group who did not receive jasmine scent, F(1,55) = 4.08, 4.05, 3.31, and 14.11, respectively . These results are particularly salient in terms of reducing stress and anxiety in participants undergoing enclosed medical procedures, such as an MRI.

Gillies, Brenden: [11:00] [P1] Will Icing a Starting Pitcher's Glenohumeral Joint After Pitching a Game Affect the Range of Motion of That Joint? Will Icing a starting Pitcher's glenohumeral joint after pitching a game affect the range of motion of that joint? This study will examine whether icing a starting pitcher's shoulder after a game is always necessary. I will mail data collection forms to Certified Athletic Trainers at local post-secondary schools. The forms will examine range of motion, girth measurements, and associated pain. Every pitcher develops inflammation after throwing, which is a product of repetitious action of the rotator cuff muscles and other glenohumeral muscles. According to Starkey (2004), inflammation is a necessary part of the healing process in response to injury and pain is an indicator of tissue damage. Since inflammation is a necessary part of healing, it could be concluded that ice is never needed, but this is false. Starkey (2004, p.13) remarks, "Inflammation and its role in promoting tissue healing and repair, involves a balancing act between too much and too little of a response." Butterfield et al. (2006) report that neutrophils and macrophages are responsible for inflammation and start the repair process of the tissues. However, Butterfield et al. (2006) adds that neutrophils can also cause tissue damage after non injurious exercise because of their non-specific defensive immune system functions. The results of this study could be used in the future to help increase the quality of treatment given to starting pitchers and to help decrease glenohumeral injuries.

Guiseppi, Chelsea: [1:00] [P2] The Effects of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus on Dental Carries in the Presence of Various Carbohydrate Beverages. Dental carries is a disease which a tooth undergoes destruction by demineralization of tissues. It is caused by a multitude of various bacteria, with the primary two being Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus mutans. The bacteria colonized on the tooth surface and under ideal conditions produces lactic acid, which demineralize the enamel of the tooth, followed by the dentin underneath. After prolonged destruction, the bacteria can then invade the pulp chamber. Once in the pulp chamber, the bacteria infect the pulpal tissue and can eventually destroy the root as well as surrounding areas. This experiment is to determine if the rate of decay is higher for Lactobacillus acidophilus or Streptococcus mutans in the presence of three types of sport recovery beverages. This could be critical for athletes showing that they may need to know if they have a specific bacterium in their mouths, so they can determine which sport recovery beverage will cause a cavity in the shortest amount of time. Extracted teeth will be inoculated with a strand of bacterium and a specific recovery beverage. The rate of decay will then be determined under microscopic investigation of small pores in the enamel of the tooth.

Haley, Rebecca: [11:00] [P1] Studies on the Resonance Stabilization of Conjugated Aldehydes and Corresponding Imines. The objective of this research is to evaluate the resonance stabilization carbonyls and imines impart to alkenes. The resonance stabilization of a carbon-carbon double bond conjugated to the carbon-oxygen double bond (C=O) of aldehydes is widely accepted.1 However, the focus is primarily on the carbonyl's stability rather than on the carbon-carbon double bond. Reports of the resonance stabilization energies of enimines have been considerably less numerous.2 While conjugated enimines (C=C-C=N) have been used synthetically for decades, there has been little investigation into the resonance stabilization of these compounds. The determination of resonance stabilization will be accomplished by measuring the heat of hydrogenation for conjugated compounds and comparing it to that of non-conjugated compounds. The heats of hydrogenation will be determined for a series of enimines with varying structures to probe the effect structure has on resonance stabilization and therefore on the extent of conjugation. Specifically, the effect of carbon length and carbon substituents on the double bond will be investigated.

Hayes, Breanna: [2:30-2:45] [2B] [ASC-213] Would Raising the Awareness of Osgood- Schlatter Disease Make Parents and Athletes More Prone to Take Precautions to Prevent It? Would raising the awareness of Osgood-Schlatter disease make parents and athletes more prone to take precautions to prevent it? This study will explain Osgood-Schlatter and the use of information by health care providers. It will examine the causes, and prevalence of Osgood-Schlatter in adolescent athletes. It will also examine the different types of treatments used and information given about Osgood-Schlatter disease. I plan to distribute questionnaires to pediatric doctors who work in private practices in the Wheeling area. Based on the results of this study, I plan to make a conclusion about the awareness of Osgood-Schlatter and the prevention methods taken by parents and athletes. The results of this study will be referenced in the future to help in the awareness and prevention of Osgood-Schlatter disease in adolescent athletes.

Johnson, Kristin; Pinkerton: [1:00] [P2] The Use of Operant Techniques in Goldfish Training. Six comet goldfish, Carassius Auratus, showed the capacity for learning to perform basic tasks after training using classical and operant procedures. The fish were housed in ten-gallon tanks with continuous aeration and artificial sunlight for six hours per day, three fish per tank. Fish were trained two days per week. Initially each fish was classically conditioned with a feeding wand, which was paired with fish food, until the fish reliably approached the wand. Each fish was then operantly conditioned to perform a sample of three additional tasks—swimming through a ring attached to a plastic pole, going under a limbo stick, and swimming through rings located on the bottom of the tank. Correct behavior was reinforced on a continuous schedule using shrimp pellets, highly desired by fish. On non-training days, fish were given bland but nutritious fish flakes. Trials were timed starting when the feeding wand entered the water and ending when the food was released. It was evident that learning occurred because as the number of sessions increased, response time decreased, and complexity of response increased. By the end of training, the fish were completing the tasks without guidance. Future studies of learning in fish might consider controlling the quantity of reward to avoid premature satiation, separating the fish to avoid the possibility of interference with training, and using different conditioned stimuli such as vibration or visual cues.

Kern, Louray: [11:00] [P1] Chemical Effects on Prisoners of High Altitude Experiments in the Dachau Concentration Camp. The intention of this research topic is to study the chemical effects on the bodies of prisoners who were subjected to high altitude experiments, which were conducted in the Dachau concentration camp, as well as to evaluate the extreme conditions the Germans were willing to undergo in order to obtain victory. The prisoners in these camps were subjected to decompression chambers and then exposed to extreme pressures in order to study the effects of high altitude on German pilots. These strenuous conditions usually ended in the death of participants, through many biological and chemical changes. As the amount of oxygen available to participants decreases, the body slowly begins to shut down, and the amount of carbon dioxide in the body begins to increase. This increase in carbon dioxide attaches to the red blood cells and further reduces the amount of oxygen taken in for the body to distribute. These changes lead to a faster heart rate, and changes in the blood chemistry of the human being studied. The effects witnessed in these patients will be examined and studied on a chemical level to better understand how the body reacted to these extremely horrible conditions for the betterment of the German military force.

Kern, Louray: [11:00] [P1] Studies on the Resonance Stabilization of Conjugated Ketones and Corresponding Imines. The objective of this research is to evaluate the resonance stabilization carbonyls and imines impart to alkenes. The resonance stabilization of a carbon-carbon double bond conjugated to the carbon-oxygen double bond (C=O) of ketones is widely accepted.1 However, the focus is primarily on the carbonyl's stability rather than on the carbon-carbon double bond. Reports of the resonance stabilization energies of enimines have been considerably less numerous.2 While conjugated enimines (C=C-C=N) have been used synthetically for decades, there has been little investigation into the resonance stabilization of these compounds. The determination of resonance stabilization will be accomplished by measuring the heat of hydrogenation for conjugated compounds and comparing it to that of non-conjugated compounds. The heats of hydrogenation will be determined for a series of ketones and corresponding enimines with varying structures to probe the effect structure has on resonance stabilization and therefore on the extent of conjugation. Specifically, the effect of aliphatic and aromatic substituents on the conjugated system will be investigated.

Keylor, Chelsey, L.: [11:00] [P1] Concussion Knowledge of Ohio Valley Athletic Conference High School Football Coaches. What is the extent of the knowledge base of Ohio Valley Athletic Conference high school football coaches regarding concussion signs and symptoms? Head injuries, especially concussions, are serious injuries that are common among contact sports like football. These injuries can be life threatening if not recognized and managed properly. Therefore, this study will examine the knowledge base of coaches through the use of a distributed questionnaire to all the head varsity coaches of the Ohio Valley Athletic Conference. There is limited research about high school athletes and concussions in comparison to those athletes at the collegiate and professional levels. There is even less published research on this specific population available prior to this study. Results will be obtained from returned and completed questionnaires. From the results, a conclusion regarding the knowledge base of concussions of local high school football programs can be better understood and compared between Ohio and West Virginia. The results of this study can then be used in the future to better determine concussion recognition and management protocols within this conference.

Klan, Hailey: [11:00] [P1] Are Patients Receiving Doses of Radiation Unnecessarily? This study is meant to identify the indications for ordering myocardial perfusion imaging examinations to determine whether patients are receiving unnecessary doses of radiation. The researcher obtained permission from participating nuclear medicine departments and were asked to collect and de-identify existing data for the research. Patient data included: cardiac test performed, age, gender, indication of the exam, priors, family and personal heart history, and other technical factors such as patient motion or infiltration. After the study was conducted and analyzed, the research intention is if the data collected shows that patients are receiving unnecessary radiation that hospitals readdress their indication for ordering a nuclear medicine myocardial perfusion exam.

Kotson, John: [3:15-3:30] [2D] [ASC-315] Development of the WJU iPhone App. As part of an internship in Computer Science, in conjunction with the IT department, I developed the iPhone/iPad application for Wheeling Jesuit University. This presentation will discuss how the idea came about, initial design steps, learning the programming environment, coding the application, developing the look and feel of the application, and adding additional functionality after inputs from field testers and administrators. This presentation will be the public unveiling of the application prior to its release on the Apple App Store for the general public.

Lamyaithong, Andre, B.; Hepp: [11:00] [P1] Preparation of Several Sodium Dialkyldithiocarbamates for Incorporation Into a Variety of Metal Complexes. The dithiocarbamate ligand has been known for more than a century and a variety of methods have been utilized in its synthesis. Three attractive alternatives are available for secondary amines with alkyl substituents (R and R'):

R2NH(l) + NaOH(aq) + CS2 → NaS2CNR2

R2NH(l) + NH3(aq) + CS2 → (NH4)(S2CNR2)

2 R2NH(l) + CS2 → (R2NH2)(S2CNR2)

These dithiocarbamate ligands react with a wide variety of metal ions to produce complexes which have found wide usage in agricultural, industrial and environmental applications. In our laboratories, iron, cobalt, nickel, indium and gallium complexes have been studied, along with several other metals. Our current research focuses on the optimization of the preparation of pure starting materials used in the preparation of a variety of metal complexes. The preparation of pure sodium dithiocarbamates NaS2CNR2 is as much an art as a science. With changing organic substituents (R), rates of formation and solubilities change markedly. Current preparations include the ethyl, n-butyl derivative, whose Ni(II) complex has yielded NiS1.03 on thermal decomposition, an important potential catalyst for the removal of sulfur from fuel stocks. We are also synthesizing several sodium salts which exhibit substantial steric crowding when forming novel metal complexes: R,R'= cyclohexyl, R=cyclohexyl, R'= t-butyl, and R,R' = iso-propyl. Additionally,we are investigating the possibility of synthesizing a series of di-butyl derivatives, i.e., di-n-butyl, di-sec-butyl, and di-iso-butyl to use to probe steric effects in the decomposition of the related nickel(II) dithiocarbamates (Ni(S2CNR2)2.

Image indicating this presentation is related to the Wheeling community, West Virginia and/or the Appalachian region.Macri, Audra; Schubert, Street, Gammache: [3:00-3:15] [2D] [ASC-315] Appalachian Institute Mapping Software. The Appalachian Institute Mapping Software was created in order to educate the public and make others more aware of the Ohio Valley region of the Appalachians. This is done by displaying a layered map showing environment emissions, economy effects, culture and specific landmarks such as nursing homes and schools. To achieve this goal we used free and open source programs such as Google Maps API and MySQL. This software will allow for users to add information about the community as additional layers on the map. By allowing users to add information we hope this will give the program the opportunity to continuously grow and educate the community

Macri, Audra: [2:30-2:45] [2D] [ASC-315] Digital Signage: Because Pixels Are Better Than Paper. In our busy day to day lives we want information quickly and easily while still being eye-catching and easy to understand. A Digital Signage System provides the opportunity to appeal to our audience in a new and attractive way. By implementing Digital Signage across campus, we are able to appeal to current students and also provide information to potential students, alumni and other campus visitors. This presentation will cover the need for Digital Signage on Wheeling Jesuit's campus, the process of implementing and building presentations, as well as discuss future plans and goals for the system. A brief presentation will also be done to show the overall purpose and use of the Digital Signage System.

Marino, Katlyn: [1:00] [P2] A Comparison of Hellbender Microhabitat Data to Various West Virginia Watersheds Using a Geographic Information System and a Digital Elevation Model. The Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchusalleganiensis alleganiensis) is the largest aquatic salamander in North America. The species can be found in undisturbed tributaries of the Mississippi River (Nickerson and Mays, 1972). C. alleganiensis is referred to as a habitat specialist, and is susceptible to minor microhabitat perturbations. In West Virginia, the Eastern Hellbender has been listed as a species of concern (Horchler, 2010). The species declination is attributed to logging as well as land development and agriculture that increase water pollution (Horchler, 2010). Acid mine drainage and impoundments have reduced stream populations (Horchler, 2010). The purpose of this study is to create a baseline for the presence and abundance of Easter Hellbender and to determine which environmental factors affect its habitat in Buffalo Creek and Wheeling Creek. This information will aid the conservation and survival of the species. Thirty 100-meter sites were chosen at random in both creeks. At each sample site, the distance to the nearest 90 degree curve and the stream bank slope were determined using topographic software. Each site will be sampled for water chemistry values, pebble size distribution and the number of suitable shelters. Nocturnal surveys will be conducted at each site to determine population density. Statistical analysis will determine correlations between environmental factors and population density. Geographic information systems and digital elevation models will be used to analyze twenty-three West Virginia watersheds for the size, percent of forested land, percent of agriculture, percent of urban development and percent of mining. A comparison between this information and hellbender microhabitat data will be statistically analyzed for factors that affect hellbender populations.

Mason, Kayla: [10:15-10:30] [1A] [ASC-212] The German Exploitation of French Resources and Culture. In 1940, Germany defeated France over the course of six weeks. The availability of French resources prompted predatory German economic policies that rapidly destroyed the French economy, with the French food supply being one of the central targets. Exploiting these resources strained French living standards and countless civilians endured the pains of hunger. To end suffering, the Germans created a ration system that proved inefficient. Meanwhile, the growth of the black market emerged as a type of resistance to German demands for order and resources. The French used the black market as a form of rebellion against the Germans, and many citizens found that the market was the only way to purchase coveted goods, such as wine. To the French, wine was a work of art and many people would stop at nothing to protect this representation of their country. The German-French struggle over wine was an attempt, by the French, to not only protect a precious resource, but also as a way to defend French culture from German power.

Mason, Ryan: [10:00-10:15] [1C] [ASC-215] The Role of Homer2 Scaffold Protein in Src-activated Invadopodia Formation. Src tyrosine kinase is a regulator of cancer cell invasion and AFAP-110 has been shown to be an activator of Src; additionally, heightened expression of AFAP-110 in aggressive prostate cancers indicates its expression is directly proportional to invasiveness. We identified Homer2 as a binding partner of AFAP-110 in two independent yeast-2 hybrid experiments. Homer2 over-expression impedes cell motility in cervical cancer which reduces invasiveness. These findings suggest that Homer2 may inhibit AFAP-110's activation of Src and diminish invasion. The goal of this experiment is to determine if Homer2-Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) fusion protein can reduce invasive structure formation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The gene encoding the Homer2 protein was excised from a mammalian GFP expression vector and ligated into a mammalian RFP expression vector. Protease-deficient E. coli BL21 cells were transformed with the Homer2-RFP fusion protein. Lysates of the transformed BL21 cells were probed for expression of the fusion protein via immunoblotting using Homer2-specific and RFP-specific antibodies. Lysates of the BL21 transformants probed with Homer2-specific and RFP-specific antibodies expressed protein bands of ~67 kD which is the approximate size of the Homer2-RFP fusion protein. Non-transformed BL21 controls exhibited no corresponding protein bands. Our results indicate that this plasmid vector encodes the Homer2-RFP fusion protein needed to determine if its presence in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells will decrease formation of invasion structures.

Meigh, Kevin: [1:00] [P2] Power Plant Problem: The Fermat Point. My problem is called the power company problem. Suppose that a power company wants to select the most efficient location to build a power plant to supply cities A, B, and C. They want to build it in a spot where the sum of the distances from cities A, B, and C to the power plant is a minimum. Fermat and Torcelli have solved the power plant problem for three cities, and that solution is called the Fermat Point. The Fermat Point is not always in the interior of the triangle formed by the cities as the vertices. If an angle of the triangle is greater than 120 degrees, the Fermat Point is at the vertex of that angle. Since Fermat and Torcelli have solved the power plant problem for three cities, I will solve it for greater than three cities and build off of their work. I can find the solution to more than three points through coordinate geometry and differential calculus. Solutions obtained by calculus are fine, but it would be better if I could find the Fermat Point for more than three cities by geometric construction. I will also try to find an algorithm to calculate the Fermat Point for more than three cities. I will also try to geometrically prove that my Fermat Points generate the minimum possible sum of distances to the power plant.

Metzger, Erin: [11:00] [P1] Synthesis of Ligands using Conjugated Amines. It has been found that ligands can be formed using typical amine groups. By adding a conjugated amine to haloethe, the product hopefully seen would be a conjugated amine ligand. Using conjugated amines we are able to test whether the conjugation takes away the strength of the ligand bond when used to form dithiocarbamate complexes, which dithiocarbamates have been previously used for things such as pesticides and the synthesis of artificial moon dust as conducted by Dr. Duffy in a previous experiment.

Moore, Sierra; Capiola, Antoinette, Cotter, Sanderson: [2:30-2:45] [2C] [ASC-215] The Use of Behavioral Methods to Study Imagery. Kirkpatrick and Lesser (2010) proposed a behavioral approach to visual imagery focused on the relation between instructional conditions and measured behaviors instead of inferred imaginal events. On this view, "imagery" means "sensory functions evoked by verbal descriptions" (Stewart, Barnes-Holmes, Hayes, & Lipkens, 2001, p. 82). Thirty participants either imagined or observed a short scene, and either timed part of it or completed a questionnaire about its content. The different types of practice and imagining or observing resulted in differential performance on a final test trial when all participants were asked to imagine. Results suggest that performance under imagery instructions depends upon the type of experience that precedes it.

Moses, Katie; Mae: [2:30-2:45] [2C] [ASC-215] The Relationship Between Total War and Tralfamadorians. For our capstone project, we plan on giving an oral presentation on the role of fiction in representing the concept of total war as it affects soldiers. To explain the relationship between fiction and total war, we will use literature representative of both World War II and the Vietnam War. We will examine Kurt Vonnegut's novel, Slaughterhouse-Five in comparison with excerpts from Tim O'Brien's novel, The Things They Carried. Although total war is defined as a war which involves all areas of society, we will make a case that O'Brien's fictitious account of soldiers' experiences in Vietnam is relevant in understanding how war in general affects soldiers and how authors get at the Truth of the soldiers' experiences. Both works contain examples of hallucinations as a soldier's means of coping with the reality of a total war. We seek to show that this breaking with reality is in fact an appropriate way to demonstrate the human experience and that fiction has a highly relevant role in recording history. Also, we will investigate how elements such as time travel, hallucinations, ironic language, and the subversion of a person's natural response to war demonstrate the larger theme of the surreal nature of war in each work.

Moses, Katie: [3:00-3:15] [2C] [ASC-215] One Hundred Years of Solitude and Middlesex: The Cure for the Eternal Case of the Mondays. In One Hundred Years of Solitude and Middlesex, Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Jeffrey Eugenides construct elaborate labyrinths which trap many of the characters within their novels. Garcia Marquez and Eugenides form these labyrinths through the use of nonlinear or circular time, scientific limitations, familial relationships, and the past's influence on the present. In this restrictive environment, both authors test the limits of free will in opposition to insurmountable odds; furthermore, both authors make cases that the only way to escape the maze is through recognizing the labyrinth, and by doing so, destroying it.

Mounts, Cassandra: [11:00] [P1] Would Having a Certified Athletic Trainer in Secondary Schools Lessen the Likelihood of Injury as a Collegiate Athlete?Would having a Certified Athletic Trainer in secondary schools lessen the likelihood of injury as a collegiate athlete? This study will examine the correlation between Certified Athletic Trainers being employed at secondary schools and college athletes suffering injuries. I plan to obtain permission from various colleges and universities in West Virginia to conduct this research. An email will then be sent to the Certified Athletic Trainers employed at those schools asking them to forward the email to any athlete who has suffered a sports related injury while attending their school. Based on the results of this study, I plan to make a conclusion about a positive or negative correlation between the collegiate injury and if the high school attended by the athlete employed a full time ATC. The results of this study will be referenced in the future to help the ongoing argument that all secondary schools need to employ an ATC.

Murphy, Malachi: [11:00] [P1] Is There a Link Between Excessive Glenohumeral External Rotation and Rotator Cuff Injuries Among Baseball Pitchers? There has been an increase in rotator cuff injuries in collegiate baseball pitchers, and this study will investigate a potential explanation. Many studies have linked increased susceptibility of rotator cuff injuries to decreased glenohumeral external rotation, decreased glenohumeral internal rotation, and increased internal rotation deficits. This study is aimed to determine the link between an increased susceptibility to rotator cuff injuries and increased glenohumeral external rotation. I plan interview collegiate baseball pitchers and use goniometric measurements to determine if a link exists between excess glenohumeral external rotation and rotator cuff injuries. Based on the results, I plan to make a conclusion as to whether excess glenohumeral external rotation leaves baseball pitchers more likely to suffer from a rotator cuff injury. If a link is present, a corrective exercise could be implemented in order to reduce the susceptibility of rotator cuff injuries.

Murray, Brady, G.: [10:15-10:30] [1B] [ASC-213] Victim Offender Mediation Program Successful in Helping Offenders. Successful completion of victim offender mediation programs reduces the outcome of the offender repeating the crime in the future. This thesis examines the success of victim offender mediation programs and describes how each program defined success. This measure was used to determine if these mediation programs are reducing the incidence of re-offending after completion of the program. The four counties examined were Los Angeles County, California, Minneapolis County, Minnesota, Maricopa County, Arizona, and Multnomah County, Oregon. Looking at these mediation programs and how each program defined success can determine whether the victim offender mediation was successful in keeping the offender from reoffending in the future. Two additional programs in California were researched to determine whether or not these programs were successful. The reason why this research is so important is because the information obtained can help determine if victim offender mediation programs are successful in achieving the program goals.

Newrones, Megan: [11:00] [P1] What is the Relationship Between Functional Knee Braces and Re-Injuring the Anterior Cruciate Ligament?This study examines the relationship between a functional knee brace (FKB) and the re-injury of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) in female collegiate soccer athletes. I plan on administering questionnaires to Division II athletic trainers and Division II female collegiate soccer athletes. The results collected from the questionnaires will be used to provide data relating FKBs use during competition, the discontinuance of FKBs during competition, and re-injuring one's ACL. With this information, the rehabilitation team (athletic trainers, orthopedic surgeons, and physical therapists) will be able to create more effective injury prevention programs as well as rehabilitation protocols.

Nkama, Harmonie; Russel, Li: [2:45-3:00] [2D] [ASC-315] Inter-Library Loan Application. The product we are going to create is a mixture of the current ITS helpdesk and the current system that is in place for interlibrary loans. The software we will use is Microsoft Access for the database server, I.I.S (Internet Information System) for the web server, the software language that talks to the servers is ASP, and we also will use a simple STMP engine Post Fix. The benefits of using ASP and Access, is to simplify the hardware it has to run on and the knowledge you have to know to run the software and servers. The objectives are to create a simple, usable program for the Librarians. The goal is to have a finished product with all the features fully functional.

Olsavsky, Rebecca; Richards: [1:00] [P2] "Never Forget:" The Use of Facebook as Patriotic Symbolism. As social media has become an integral part of American culture, users on social media sites like Facebook have become accustomed to expressing their opinions on a variety of issues, both political and cultural, via their online identities. This study is designed to analyze users' Facebook status commentary on national events, specifically the anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Furthermore, this study focuses on the levels of patriotism reflected in users' statuses. The supposed findings are that Facebook users, although likely to post statuses relating to 9/11 on the date of the anniversary, rarely post statuses about the event the day prior to or the day following 9/11. The data collected was compiled from more than 3000 status updates through a convenience sample of seven Facebook users from 9/10 - 9/12, 2011. Through the random selection of every third poster, more than 1400 of the 3000 statuses and profile pictures were coded by two independent coders. The data was then categorized into fifteen different categories which included Pro-Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, Pro-War, Anti-War, Pro-Military, Anti-Military, Pro-Religion, Anti-Religion, Pro-Government, Anti-Government, Pro-Patriotism, Anti-Patriotism, Patriotic Profile Picture, Non-Patriotic Profile Picture, and Other. The data will be analyzed and cross-tabulated based upon gender. The content of the posted statuses leans towards a pro-patriotic tone which suggests that Americans, at least in their social media identities, present information in a positive light. Further data is forthcoming.

Image indicating this presentation is related to the Wheeling community, West Virginia and/or the Appalachian region.O'Neil, Ronald, B.: [1:00] [P2] The Effectiveness of Buffer Zones to Mitigate the Impact of Longwall Mining on First Order Streams in Southern Ohio. Previous studies have concluded that longwall mining is harmful to the overall health of streams due to subsidence. In order to preserve the old growth forest within Belmont County's Dysart Woods a 300 foot Buffer Zone between the surrounding longwall mine panels and the old growth forest areas was implemented. The area within the buffer zone was mined using an improved version of traditional room-and-pillar mining which has been shown to result in minimal stream damage. The Dysart Woods area was first longwall mined in 2005 and mining concluded in 2009. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a planned buffer perimeter to preserve the integrity of the first order streams within an old forest growth in southern Ohio from impairment caused by longwall mining. Data was collected at eight consecutive sample sites along 750 meters of two first order streams within the Dysart Woods. Sample parameters consisted of physical, chemical, and biological data collection at each site. Data collected from two Dysart Woods streams was then compared to an unimpaired, reference stream and a stream that had previously been damaged by longwall mine subsidence. Physical parameters included watershed acreage, distance to source, elevation, and median width. Streams were similar in size with the total watershed acreage of the streams ranging from 53.8 to 263.4 sq. acres and median stream widths of 0.45 to 1.28 meters. Chemical characteristics included dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, temperature and ORP. Stream mean conductivity values of 527.6 µS/cm for the disturbed stream, 342.1 µS/cm for the reference stream, and an average value of 440 µS/cm for the two Dysart Woods stream, falling between the disturbed and reference conductivity values. Stream temperatures varied from 17.4°C at the disturbed stream, 16.8°C in reference streams, and an average of 20.2°C at the Dysart Woods streams. Biological samples consisted of aquatic macroinvertebrates collected from each stream and identified in a laboratory setting. Macroinvertebrates were then used to determine diversity and longevity. Diversity, or taxa richness, was calculated by determining the number of species present within each sample. Longevity of the stream was determined through calculating the number of EPT taxa consisting of mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies, which have a life cycle greater than 9 months, combined with semivoltine taxa, or those having a life cycle greater than one year and therefore requiring perennial flow. In analysis; physical, chemical, and biological parameters for two Dysart Woods streams were compared against a disturbed and a reference stream via and analysis of variance.

Pecnik, Samantha, L.; Lamyaithong, Hepp, Coffield, Duffy: [11:00] [P1]Synthesis and Thermal Analysis of Several Bis (diorganodithiocarbamato) nickel (II) Complexes. Metal sulfides have numerous aerospace applications including hydrocracking catalysts for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch products to jet fuels, modeling of pre-biotic chemistry, production of high fidelity lunar regolith (soil) simulants, and photovoltaic devices. One process for producing metal sulfides is the thermal decomposition of metal dithiocarbamate complexes. Organic substituents on the dithiocarbamate ligand have a significant effect on the decomposition pathways and therefore can be used to modify the decomposition process. A series bis (diorganodithiocarbamato) nickel (II) complexes are being synthesized. The thermal decomposition of these compounds will be analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The partial volatility of the bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)nickel(II) has been confirmed, while the morpholino- derivative appears to thermally decompose in a N2 atmosphere to yield NiS.

Pennacchio, John: [10:45-11:00] [1A] [ASC-212] The Japanese Internment: The Rise of Racism and the Fall of Human Rights in Total War.Eugene Rostow called the American internment of people of Japanese ancestry "our worst wartime mistake." The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II and precipitated the internment, which uprooted over 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, roughly two thirds of whom were American citizens. Soon thereafter, America engaged in a total war against the Axis powers: the whole of American society—soldiers and civilians—was mobilized and everything—even civil rights in some cases—was subordinated to the war effort. Consequently, an atmosphere of hysteria, mainly concentrated on the west coast, provided an environment for racist sentiments against the Japanese already brewing in the years preceding the internment to manifest themselves in the public and media. From the government's perspective, the internment was a "military necessity" to establish civil control, but in the process, the government treated its own citizens like aliens and in some cases, animals. The internment was a deplorable infringement on civil and human rights fueled by racism and fear, and poor governmental leadership.

Penso, Andrew: [11:00] [P1] Diagnosing SPECT/CT Myocardia Perfusion Using One Set of CT Connection Images. Patient radiation safety is a must throughout the world. More techniques must be developed to reduce radiation exposure to patients to help increase benefit-to-risk ratio and limit the length of scan times for nuclear medicine studies. This research will examine the process of fusing a single CT image with both the SPECT rest and stress images of a myocardial perfusion study to discover if this method is feasible for reducing scan times and reduce radiation doses while accurately diagnosing heart deficiencies. Ten scans were used that involved having a SPECT/CT study performed at The Cleveland Clinic (Main Campus) using a Siemens SPECT/CT camera. Each image set was reprocessed using the stress SPECT image fused with the rest CT and then reevaluated by licensed radiologist, Sankaran Shrikanthan. The patient's research images and the non-research images were then compared to find the accuracy of the research images.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Petrasko, Maria, V.: [2:45-3:00] [2C] [ASC-215] Conflict in the Border States: A Look Into the U.S.-Mexican Drug War. This thesis explores the drug war that has existed for almost a century and continues to be a source of tension between the United States and Mexico. I attempt to answer the following questions: Does violence against non-combatant civilians in the northern Mexican states increase as the Mexican government imprisons more of the powerful cartel leaders? Does violence in the northern Mexican states increase as the U.S. government heightens U.S. Homeland Security's measures of interdiction policies? The proposed answer is that drug war-related deaths increase as the U.S. and Mexican governments continue to implement interdiction policies, which include the arrest and imprisonment of drug traffickers and the interception of illegal drugs, in their attempts at fighting the drug war. I measure drug war-related violence by looking at published death record data for the Mexican Border States. I measure interdiction policies by looking at data regarding cartel leader arrests, money spent on border control technologies, and the number of law enforcement officers working in particular regions. Critics argue that current U.S. interdiction policies fail to decrease the level and intensity of violence in the northern Mexican states. Experts in the drug crime field agree that the number of powerful cartels actually increases as U.S. Homeland Security measures become more technologically advanced. The study of the U.S.-Mexican drug war is an important and pressing issue in the International Studies discipline as analysts seek to find or create strategies that will decrease the number of violent deaths in the Border lands.

Petrasko, Maria, V.: [10:15-10:30] [1D] [ASC-312] Gernika: A Blitzkrieg Testing Ground. In this presentation, I try to express how Pablo Picasso's masterpiece Guernica portrays the concept of total war. Picasso responded to the two-hour bombing of the quiet Basque town of Gernika by German and Italian warplanes on April 26, 1937 by painting one of the most important artworks of the 20th century. Guernica shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts particularly upon innocent civilians. The bombing of Gernika represents a quintessential example of total war of modernity. The Germans' bombing of Gernika as a means of testing out new aerial weapons and tactics precluded the Blitzkrieg warfare method that would soon after result in death and ruin throughout Europe. This bombing also foreshadowed the systematic and absolute destruction of German and Japanese cities that was to be carried out by the allied forces. In addition to being a magnificent work of art, Picasso's Guernica stands as a monumental symbol that begs for peace, while also acting as a perpetual reminder of the tragedies of war.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Philbrick, Elizabeth: [3:15-3:00] [2C] [ASC-215] Broken Bodies and Caring Hearts: Japanese Imprisonment of American Nurses in WW II. Compassion is not a feeling most people relate to Total War and imprisonment. Total War includes the mobilization of all resources available to completely engage in the destruction of physical surroundings, emotional realities and the futures of those involved. During World War II, the United States became militarily engaged after Pearl Harbor was attacked. Shortly after this, the Battle of the Philippines took place. The imprisonment of Army and Navy nurses during World War II showed that Total War could not prohibit compassion and perseverance even under detainment. The Japanese captured seventy-eight U.S. nurses -- the first female American prisoners of war -- and they were imprisoned at Santo Tomas and Los Banos. These women were instructed to care for U.S. soldiers as well as Japanese wounded. The conditions were savage at best with an open air ward for a hospital. Hardships were numerous as medical supplies dwindled, food rations decreased and hope disappeared. The internment camps that became home for these women were full of medical challenges as well as emotional struggles. Nurses in these camps worked with skill and compassion as they tried to repair broken bodies. The concept of Total War comes into play when one realizes the struggles they faced for their own lives. Most of these women lost almost 30% of their body weight pre-imprisonment due to lack of food and poor living conditions. The nurses were forced to work under an oppressor who did not care if they or their patients survived. This detainment of American nurses by the Japanese shows one way that Total War affected our nation.

Pratt, Ashleigh: [10:30-10:45] [1D] [ASC-312] Statistical Creation of a Media Guide. The use of media guides for sporting events allows for information about the sports team to be transmitted to media outlets and fans in a clear and concise manner. This presentation will focus on the creation of a media guide for WJU through the use of statistics gathered from the study of competitors' media guides.

Principe, Adam: [10:30-10:45] [1A] [ASC-212] Lend Lease and Its Effects on WWII. During the first few months of World War I, the American government took an isolationist position regarding countries in Asia and Europe. Shortly after placing an embargo on the belligerent nations, congress voted to lift said embargo allowing for the development of policies such as "cash and carry" and "Lend Lease". This change in policy came at a crucial moment in the war as the allied nations were finding it difficult to resist the aggressors. It would then be safe to say had not the U.S. changed its foreign policy; the war might have had a drastically different result. My paper argues that the Americas efforts to supply allied nations served as a vital life line for these countries and was so successful that the American policy of Lend Lease was adopted by the United Nations so that all allied nations could benefit. Sources have shown that the influx of American supplies and munitions were much appreciated in not only Great Britain and the Soviet Union, but also helped in the industrialization of other allied nations such as China and Australia, allowing these lesser countries to contribute to the war. These sources have also shown that militaries were not the sole beneficiaries of these supplies. The populations of these countries, especially the Soviet Union, were being drained of their own agricultural resources by the Germans and were unable to produce food needed to feed their own populations. The establishment of Lend Lease should be regarded as a turning point in the war as it not only supplied our allies abroad but also helped to ensure the defeat of the Axis Powers.

Queale, Max: [11:00] [P1] The Effect of Hypoxic Warm-up on Subsequent Underwater Swimming Distance. Purpose of this research is to define the relationship between acute hypoxic training and increased underwater distance swimming. This study examines this correlation for the underwater dolphin kick and the breaststroke pullout techniques. The results of this research study may lead to the inclusion of hypoxic-style sets in the warm-up portion of the swimming workout in club, high school, collegiate, and elite swim settings.

Reel, Christopher: [10:00-10:15] [1D] [ASC-312] The War Between Intellectual Property and Technological Progression: Is IP Obsolete? As our technological world continues to accelerate, intellectual property law continues to erode despite hopeful issuances of various acts restricting technological progressions from completely overtaking intellectual property rights. Although both intellectual property rights and technological progression serve similar purposes – to implement innovative ideas – and both hope to assist the greater cause of improving economic struggles, they continue to battle for control of the reins. This paper, thus serves a purpose to analyze whether intellectual property rights are becoming obsolete while furthermore presenting reasons that support my logical conclusion, which states intellectual property holds a heavy reliance on technological progression. Overall, intellectual property still begs to be a justifiable law; however, its power is hindered for various reasons. First, I will analyze how the recession has begun to diminish intellectual property's validity, and the potential outcomes that may arise from this slow regression to obsoleteness. Second, I will analyze technological progression and intellectual property's vital, yet wary dependence on it. Third, I will bring light to a musical and technological phenomenon Hatsune Miku, which exploits intellectual property law's vulnerability to technological advancement. This case analysis will then filter into a final analysis of the fifth chapter of the Copyright Infringement Bill, and its ambiguous nature. The compilation of these analyses will logically conclude that, although intellectual property is vital to the progression of the economy, it is under technology's thumb, and thus heavily depends on technological progression. Therefore, any attempt to hinder technological progression will causally hinder intellectual property's prowess.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Roxby, Caitlin: [11:00] [P1] Finding a Relationship Between Limited Hip External Rotationand Quadriceps Injuries in Female Collegiate Athletes. Is there a relationship between limited hip external rotation and quadriceps injuries in female collegiate athletes? This study will examine the possible relationship through goniometric measurements and informal interviews with female student-athletes at Wheeling Jesuit University and surrounding local colleges. With this information I will draw a conclusion to describe a relationship between the two variables. The results of this study will allow athletic trainers and other health professionals who work with athletes to perform more thorough pre-participation screenings and establish corrective exercise programs for elite athletes.

Image indicating this presentation is related to the Wheeling community, West Virginia and/or the Appalachian region.Ruberg, John: [1:00] [P2] Establishing Baseline Water Quality for a Stream and a Spring. There are major gaps in our knowledge of water availability, quality, and dynamics. According to the River Continuum Concept natural ecosystems tend towards a uniformity of energy flow on an annual basis, primarily because the major organic substrates shift seasonally. The purpose of this experiment is to establish a water quality baseline that can be used to detect changes in both surface and ground water quality. Analysis of the baseline will aid in detecting water contamination by determining the annual variance of the water quality parameters based on seasonal and weather patterns in the region. A Yellow Springs Inc. (YSI) Sonde 6600 was used to collect the water quality parameters hourly. Parameters measured include: the specific conductance measured by a self-contained conductivity electrode, depth, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox potential, temperature, and turbidity. The water quality parameters collected from the stream and spring between November 21 and January 8 are compared to identify the impact of specific weather events and seasonal weather patterns on the water quality parameters. The main parameter analyzed that will be used as an indicator of water contamination is conductivity, the ability of a material to carry electric current. Conductivity is used to indicate the quality of the water system because the addition of salts, or conductive material, to a stream is the anticipated realm of contamination. In conclusion, the conductivity of the spring was insulated from large temperature fluctuations without precipitation; however, the stream experienced variations in its parameters in the absence of local weather events.

Shutler, Cindy: [11:00] [P1] Would Taking OMEGA-3 Supplements Decrease Vascular Spasm in People With Primary Raynaud's Disease? More research on Raynaud's is needed to fully understand how it affects the healing process of athletes with injuries to the extremities. Research on the effect of OMEGA-3 supplements in relation to primary Raynaud's disease has been done, but the research was not extensive. More information needs to be found out about how the drug affects the vascular system to understand how it can be helpful to a healing athlete. The idea of this research is to find out how well OMEGA-3 supplements diminish symptoms of primary Raynaud's disease. Further research will need to be done with the athletic population. By doing so we can test whether taking the supplement will be beneficial to the healing process of an athlete who cannot receive cold modalities to the extremities.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Smith, Amber: [11:00] [P1] What Are the Risk Factors of Female Athlete Triad Syndrome for Collegiate Athletes? Female Athlete Triad is a medical syndrome comprised of the following three interrelated components: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. It is a very serious condition that can be detrimental to every aspect of the athlete and her career. For this reason, it is vital the syndrome be researched and studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the risk factors related to the onset of Female Athlete Triad within the collegiate population. Participants will include females 18 years of age or older who are current collegiate athletes. I plan to distribute a permission letter, informed consent, and a questionnaire via email to the head coaches of thirty NCAA schools. My hope is that the coaches will forward the email to their team, and the athletes will complete the questionnaire. I plan communicate data and findings so they may be utilized by coaches, athletic trainers, psychologists, and medical professionals to educate athletes on the signs, symptoms, and risks of the Triad, in addition to increasing diagnoses rates and tailoring treatment programs to meet the unique needs to the female athletic population. Based on the outcomes of this research, I will make conclusions about the risk factors concerning Female Athlete Triad. The results of this study may contribute to the improved well being of female collegiate athletes, as well as open new doors for future research.

Image indicating this presentation is related to gender and diversity studies.Teachout, Emily: [2:30-2:45] [2A] [ASC-212] The Treatment of Japanese Soldiers by Americans in World War II. In December 1941, the United States became involved in the Second World War with both Japan and Germany. As the war waged on in Europe, the battle for the Pacific became a more personal struggle for American citizens than the battle in Europe. After the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese became dehumanized in the minds of Americans. Because of Pearl Harbor, and through propaganda and war stories, American soldiers began engaging in gruesome behavior towards Japanese soldiers in combat. While the American soldiers generally treated the Germans respectfully during the war, Japanese soldiers were treated like animals, being both brutally murdered and mutilated. Propaganda played a large role in the treatment of Japanese soldiers by the Americans. Pictures in magazines and periodicals released racist images and articles portraying the Japanese as bats, monkeys, and vermin. This put American soldiers in the mindset of thinking of the Japanese as monsters. As a result of this, American soldiers in the Pacific treated the Japanese brutally. Bodies of Japanese soldiers were mutilated and civilians were murdered. Even the body parts of dead Japanese soldiers became valuable souvenirs for American soldiers. But these macabre practices only stayed in the Pacific and were not seen in Europe. German soldiers were actually treated more humanely by Americans. Germans, though hated, were viewed as human beings who were fighting for their country just like Americans. Germans also followed the typical Western way of warfare, unlike the Japanese who fought in ways foreign to American soldiers.

Tennant, Blaine: [11:00] [P1] What are the Perceptions of Those Working in Nuclear Medicine Diagnostic Imaging Regarding the Use of Attenuation Correction? What are the perceptions of those working in nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging regarding the use of attenuation correction? To help answer this question, a survey was introduced to technologists, with at least two years experience, asking their perceptions regarding attenuation correction. This study, which includes a questionnaire completed by a number of nuclear medicine technologists in the Wheeling region, will help determine how technologists perceive the use of attenuation correction. It is expected that nuclear medicine technologists perceive that the use of attenuation correction provides radiologists with better diagnostic images.

Tran, Andrew: [11:00] [P1] Nuclear Medicine 2.0: Working Smarter, Safer, and Simpler – the Emerging Role of Health Informatics in the Nuclear Medicine Department. Nuclear medicine today has grown dramatically due to the developments in both instrument technology and information technology. It is important for the hospital or organization to be able to quickly and securely manage patient information and utilize it efficiently. Through the use of health informatics, information pertaining to the patient's history, treatment, and diagnosis can be effectively communicated between clinicians to streamline patient management, reduce error, and focus efforts on patient care rather than administrative logistics. The purpose of this research was to analyze the utilization of health informatics in the nuclear medicine department. These applications include electronic health records, computerized physician order entry systems (CPOE), and radiology information systems including the picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Secondly, this research suggests applications in health IT that should be implemented to help nuclear medicine departments while maintaining a simpler workload for nuclear medicine technologists and physicians. In addition to abstracts from the search criteria articles , additional articles are screened for the evaluation of the impact of health informatics in the radiology and nuclear medicine department. From the given overview of the applications used in the radiology department, it can be concluded that CPOEs demonstrate a strong potential for utilization in the nuclear medicine department.

Weaver, Sean: [10:15-10:30] [1C] [ASC-215] A Study in the Movement and Propagation of Justicia americana in Middle Wheeling Creek from 1995 to 2011. American Water-Willow (Justicia americana) is a herbaceous, aquatic flowering plant that can be found throughout North America. American Water-Willow is the hardiest of its genus and can withstand temperatures colder than other Justicia. In 1995, 5 plots of Justicia americana, with 5 plants in each plot, were placed in the Middle Wheeling Creek. The purpose of this study was to monitor the number, size, and movement of the 5 original plots of Justicia americana over a 16 year period. In the fall of each year students from Dr. Stout's ecology class have gathered complete stem data of the existing Justicia americana located in the Middle Wheeling Creek. Students collected data by doing a complete stem count each year. This means that every stem was counted, its location was noted, and the number and size of the plot was recorded. Graphs were completed analyzing each plot by its size and mapped in excel using the total number of plots against their GPS location. As well, water quality measurements were taken to monitor the changes over time and to provide support for an increase or decrease in total stems and plots. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, conductivity, and stream depth information were gathered from an YSI meter each year. Environmental and human disturbance were also taken into account for this study and noted when other factors affected the quality and quantity of the stems. Through this research, the major goal was to examine the ability of plants to move and to examine how Justicia americana was able to move to portions of the Big Wheeling Creek were it was never planted, specifically upstream.